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  #101  
Old Posted Jan 12, 2020, 4:43 PM
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What is the greatest ability of the ground to pull, at a depth of one meter using a c

What is the greatest ability of the ground to pull, at a depth of one meter using a clamping mechanism?

I've been experimenting with my own clamping mechanism I have measurement results and I want to know the capabilities of other clamping mechanisms around the world, to compare the results of my experiment with other ground clamping mechanisms, in a soft ground, at a depth of one meter
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  #102  
Old Posted Jan 29, 2020, 8:43 PM
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The content of this document refers to the applied research of a deep soil anchoring mechanism with the help of tendons without affinity connects the foundation ground with the top edges of the structure.
The result is
a) This connection of the edges of the construction and the ground with the mechanisms of the invention prevents the overturning torque of the structure, and the overturning of the vertical walls. This is achieved by applying a torque of stability to the sides of the top edges of the walls derived from the ground.
b)This connection also stops the bending of the vertical load bearing elements of the structure.
c) Ground anchoring prevents the foundations from being deformed as it strengthens their resistance to downward and upward tensions.
These three causes of deformation turn into brittle failures, the result of which is the collapse of construction.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoM5pEy7n9Q&t=9s
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  #103  
Old Posted Feb 1, 2020, 7:35 PM
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Many researchers and engineers tell me that the explanations I give for my patent are insufficient and that they all need mathematical documentation. I answer them.

Mathematics is well known and can be done by those who have learned it. Simple assumptions of engineering are.

What is not known is what I am saying.

What am I saying. I come up with new methods of planning, explaining how I divert forces and where direct them. Basically I show them the design methods

And some simple mathematics.

The wall is a huge lever arm

To find the rotation of a wall, which is a lever arm, we must first find the force applied to it and multiply it by its distance from the joint of the base.

To find the force which is the force from inertia, multiply the mass of the structure by acceleration.

So, if we have the lateral force of inertia at the upper end of the wall, and the distance from the base joint, then multiplying these two numbers, we find the force of rotation of the wall.

The mathematical result of the force of rotation is divided by the distance the tendon has from the base joint, and we find the force taken by the tendon, which it carries from the top end of the wall into the ground.



Example

The drawing shows three walls of different dimensions in width.

On all walls, a lateral force of 40 tons applies. This force tends to rotate them around the joint of the base tread.

In the first left figure we see a tendon, without affinity, in the center.

The other two walls of the drawing have two tendons each near their sides.

Required. What should be the stability force (A) on the first wall, the stability force (B) on the second wall, and the stability force (C) on the third wall so that they do not overturn?
It must be ... The Torsion Torque <less than the Torque of Stability.

So

Wall stabilization torque (A)> 40X3.5 / 0.6 = 233.3 tonnes

Wall stabilization torque (B)> 40X3.5 / 1.5 = 93.3 tonnes

Wall stabilization torque (Γ)> 40X3.5 / 1.8 = 77.7 tonnes.
Here we observe that, as the distance between the tendon and the joint increases, the inversion torque decreases.
For this reason, we conclude that the invention is more efficient on adhesive walls than on columns.
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  #104  
Old Posted Jul 29, 2020, 8:32 PM
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Sesmic experiment conclusions

The biggest problem as they plan today is that they send the forces of the earthquake to the cross sections of the beams, bend their trunk and break them. The invention, by the method of design by which it joins the ground, with all the sides of the walls at their highest level using unrelated stretched tendons, and anchoring mechanisms, diverts seismic forces from the structure, deep into the ground by removing them from the cross sections of the beams. Watch this video experiment at 2.40 minutes and you will see that the beams of the seismic base are lifted up and this shows that I am deflecting the force of the earthquake deep into the ground. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoM5pEy7n9Q
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  #105  
Old Posted Sep 7, 2020, 5:48 PM
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Why do they screw experimental specimens with seismic bases?

Why do they screw experimental specimens with seismic bases? Real buildings just step on the ground. Experimental results may not be correct This is done only by my patent which joins the tops of the walls to the ground with anchoring mechanisms and tendons without relevance
Screwed construction https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoM5pEy7n9Q
Not screwed (conventional design) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l-X4tF9C7SE&t=7s
It is designed to contrast the forces of the earthquake with the loads and the dynamics of the sections of the structure. The earthquake is too strong to deal with in this way. I plan to deflect and return the forces of the earthquake to the ground.
The forces in the cross sections exist without being visible and appear only as a result of the failure.
1) If the cross-sections of the beam and wall are very strong (rigid with diaphragm function) then we will have a complete reversal of the structure when it is high and the earthquake has great acceleration and duration. Either this is my experiment or it happens in normal sized constructions. So it is a mistake to just put them on the ground.
2) If the cross sections are elastic in large earthquakes after leakage they pass to a point of breakage and there is a collapse of the structure.
In the first two cases the loads of the construction are activated to break the cross sections.
3) If the cross-sections of the walls are large and the beams have elasticity and we fasten after first pre-stressing the sides of the walls with the ground with tendons without relevance, then neither cat nor damage for obvious reasons of engineering. The magnitudes of the earthquake are sent back to the ground and do not activate the static loads.
https://www.researchgate.net/post/Wh..._seismic_bases

Last edited by seismic; Sep 7, 2020 at 6:06 PM.
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  #106  
Old Posted Sep 11, 2020, 2:27 PM
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To civil engineers Some questions

QUESTIONS
1) It is known that anything that is overturned is screwed onto something solid to prevent it from tipping over.
Why civil engineers do not screw the sides of the walls on both sides, with the ground?
The overturning of the walls deforms beams and walls until it breaks them;
Do you like to break concrete?
2) Bending is a second deformation factor that breaks the cross sections of the bearing elements.
It is known that the bilateral pre-tensioning of the sides of the walls when they have suitable cross-sections eliminates the bending.
A combination of strong ground anchorage and at the same time pre-tensioning of the sides of the walls from their upper levels with tendons without relevance would stop overturning and bending which are the only causes of deformation and we know that deformation and failure are interrelated concepts.
Do you want distortion and failures?
3) Intersecting If in the cross section of the wall we impose compressive intensities of 70% of the breaking factor, we increase the strength of the cross section by 40%.
Why do you use the mechanism of relevance as the main reinforcement and not tense walls?
4) We all know that deformation creates inelastic failure.
We mentioned the overturning of the wall and the bending of its trunk as causes of deformation and failure of all load-bearing elements.
However, deformation and even very serious can occur due to inhomogeneous subsidence of the soil.
The ground is inhomogeneous, by nature, with different support strengths at each base.
Soil sampling is required at each base foot, and if necessary soil compaction is required to increase the soil's ability to support the base.
However, due to cost, it is rarely applied and if it is applied, it is done only in great projects.
5) The non-prestressed connection of the sides of the walls with the ground diverts the seismic intensities, leading them on the cross sections.
The prestressed connection of the sides of the walls to the ground from the top level with unrelated tendons diverts the seismic intensities, leading them into the ground.
Why not apply this design?
No more excuses.
The absolute seismic system and the method that follows ensures little deformation and no failure as it controls the overturning and bending of the wall, increases the resistance of its cross-section to cut, ensures sample ground control before the construction of the project, and creates a very strong support strength of construction after compacting the foundation soil.
These are all fundamental laws of engineering, and you continue to design wrong.
https://www.researchgate.net/post/To...Some_questions

Last edited by seismic; Sep 13, 2020 at 7:41 PM.
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  #107  
Old Posted Oct 7, 2020, 11:35 PM
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Triple seismic protection in one carrier for absolute seismic protection.

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  #108  
Old Posted Oct 11, 2020, 11:05 AM
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For reflection on seismic technology

Earthquake is a natural periodic event that destroys lives and property. It does not matter when it happens, since it does happen. The science of civil engineering around the world tries to keep constructions upright. To achieve this it tries to bring in opposition to the seismic forces of the earthquake opposing forces coming from the construction. It is understood and accepted by all that any force that resists the force of an earthquake is desirable because we all know from physics that equal and opposite forces balance. I make a suggestion to those who write the anti-seismic regulations, and for some unknown reason they do not listen to me. For the first time in the world, I propose that this force that resists earthquakes should not only come from the dynamics of construction but also from an external factor, that of the ground. This external force can by itself balance the forces of the earthquake or work with the forces of construction to balance the forces of the earthquake together. It is at least very strange that they refuse to consider this proposal of mine. I accuse them at least of impartiality and irresponsibility. https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperi...?paperid=59888

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zhkUlxC6IK4
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  #109  
Old Posted Oct 13, 2020, 6:14 PM
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An industrial product has the same specifications. The constructions, however, differ from each other and each have different needs and different concerns.
Also..The soils are inhomogeneous due to their natural composition and have different strengths.
Also .. the mechanism with the tendon and the ground may lose their dynamics after a strong earthquake or over time.
There are also existing structures that need seismic reinforcement
There are too many unbalanced factors that can cause disaster in most modern seismic structures. Basically, the factors that determine the seismic behavior of structures are numerous, and in part probable. (The direction of the earthquake is unknown, the exact content of the seismic excitation frequencies is unknown, its duration is unknown.) Even the maximum possible accelerations given by seismologists, and determine the seismic design factor, have a probability of exceeding more than 10%. These unbalanced factors when combined all together cause large deformations in the structure which create from inelastic leakage failures to beyond their breaking point and we have the collapse of structures. According to modern regulations, the seismic design of buildings is based on the requirements of adequate design and plasticity. The inevitable inelastic behavior under strong seismic excitation is directed at selected elements and failure mechanisms. In particular, the lack of good design of the nodes and the clearly limited plasticity of the elements lead to fragile forms of failure. In short they inevitably manage failure which they cannot control because they cannot control deformation.
1) If the anchoring mechanism is placed in a continuous brickwork construction (without columns) it keeps the consistency of the bricks. 2) If the anchoring mechanism is placed on all the sides of the reinforced concrete walls by connecting with partial pre-tension.. using tendons without relevance, joining their upper end and the ground together ... then we stop ....
a) the overturning of the wall.
b) the bending of its trunk.
c) the critical area of ​​shear failure. d) The torques at the nodes.
e) returns deflects seismic forces into the ground Basically we stop the deformation of the building and in this way we stop the failure. The ground mechanism successfully receives up and down loads on both soft and rocky soils
If the soil is liquefied then go drilling deeper.
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  #110  
Old Posted Oct 14, 2020, 7:15 PM
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The three schools of seismic design.

The truth is that I rewrite the seismic technology of constructions from the beginning, for the following reason.
Several years ago there were two schools of civil engineering. Their dispute was whether a) the structures should have great flexibility or if they should b) be rigidly constructed with great dynamics.
a) Elastic structures have the privilege of storing seismic energy in their cross sections and returning it reduced when they return to their original position. They return it reduced due to the fact that the friction that develops in the grains of their structure during the bending of their trunk converts the kinetic energy into thermal and thus there is partial seismic damping. If the displacement is large then inelastic displacements are created, which means that they do not return to their original position after bending and show leaks with obvious cracks, which also release more seismic energy. Too large displacements drop the structures.
b) Rigid structures are those that have very large walls instead of small cross-section columns.
They show low seismic damping because they do not bend much but are durable because they have dynamics. For example, rigid constructions are prefabricated entirely of reinforced concrete.
The problem with rigid high-rise structures is that they are easily overturned due to rigidity.
When they are overturned, the entire area of ​​the base of the building is raised, losing its contact with the ground that is supported.
As a result, the unsupported loads of the building create reciprocal torques at the nodes and break the walls or overturn the entire high-rigid structure.
Eventually the school of civil engineering prevailed, which wanted elastic and plastic constructions.
Research was done and anti-seismic regulations were written which are followed by civil engineers.
And I come and tell them, the method to stop the overturning of rigid structures.
I just tell them to screw the rigid structures to the ground.
If they do this we will have defeated the earthquake because these rigid structures have dynamics without being overturned.
I write history in seismic technology again.
This has surprised everyone because it changes everything.
And when I say everything I mean that it changes all the mathematical calculations that solve constructions today.
It changes the sufficient design of the nodes and the planned plasticity of the structures. And it gives jobs to geotechnicians.
This is why I have enemies and friends for my patent. All civil engineers understand what I'm just saying, very few are trying to adapt to the new research which is based on simple assumptions of engineering. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zhkUlxC6IK4
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  #111  
Old Posted Nov 1, 2020, 10:48 AM
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Method and mechanism of seismic force deflection. From the construction they are driv

A reinforced concrete wall, when its trunk is bent, one side is compressed and the other is stretched. That is, one side shrinks and the other grows. There is a point in its cross section where compression and tension have the maximum force. This point is the critical failure area. This point is responsible for the brittle failures of the structures in the earthquake. If we stop the wall bending we will eliminate the critical failure area. Is there a design method to stop the bending and the critical failure area? Yes there is. As we said the stretching side grows. If with an unrelated tendon we apply transverse compressive forces, at the highest level of the cross-section of the wall side, (on the stretching side) greater than the tensile forces then we have stopped the bending and the critical failure area. One problem was solved. Fine now we have a rigid wall in terms of the lateral force of the earthquake without a critical failure area. Like a rigid wall that is, its overturning moment will be transmitted through the nodes where it is connected to the beams, on their trunks and after bending them easily as rigid as it is, it will break them. Another problem? There is a solution? Yes there is. If the protruding unrelated tendon that stops bending does not stop at the base foot of the wall, but extends and anchors into the ground, then the forces of the earthquake are deflected into the ground. The knots will not present great torques, capable of breaking the beams. For this reason I do not connect the base sole with the ground but I join the upper ends of the sides of the walls with the ground with tense tendons without relevance. The reason is that with this method I stop both the torque of the joints coming from the bend, and the critical failure area of ​​the wall. The critical failure area of ​​the walls is created in the cross section of the wall which is close to the base. This creates a potential difference in the adhesion of the reinforcement and the concrete. With the method of the invention, the tense unrelated tendon which is both anchored to the ground and the upper end of the wall, there is no potential difference or critical failure area. The problem of deformation with fringe failures is solved! In addition, the imposition of compressive stresses on the cross-section of the wall succeeds in increasing the strength of its cross-section in the developing shears, increases the active cross-section, improves the trajectories of the oblique tensile force and reduces the cracks. The ground anchor mechanism increases the strength of the ground so that it can accept higher compressive loads.
As we see in the figure
https://scontent.fath4-2.fna.fbcdn.n...1e&oe=5FC4220F
The earthquake forces an accelerated displacement at the base of the structure on (A) The structure refuses to follow the accelerated displacement thus creating a force in the opposite direction of this inertia the (B) The force (B) directs to the joint (1) which goes to rotate the wall. During the rotation the upward force is created (2) This force is received by the tendon (3) and sent to the ground.
https://www.researchgate.net/post/Me...nto_the_ground
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  #112  
Old Posted Nov 1, 2020, 10:49 AM
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Method and mechanism of seismic force deflection.

A reinforced concrete wall, when its trunk is bent, one side is compressed and the other is stretched. That is, one side shrinks and the other grows. There is a point in its cross section where compression and tension have the maximum force. This point is the critical failure area. This point is responsible for the brittle failures of the structures in the earthquake. If we stop the wall bending we will eliminate the critical failure area. Is there a design method to stop the bending and the critical failure area? Yes there is. As we said the stretching side grows. If with an unrelated tendon we apply transverse compressive forces, at the highest level of the cross-section of the wall side, (on the stretching side) greater than the tensile forces then we have stopped the bending and the critical failure area. One problem was solved. Fine now we have a rigid wall in terms of the lateral force of the earthquake without a critical failure area. Like a rigid wall that is, its overturning moment will be transmitted through the nodes where it is connected to the beams, on their trunks and after bending them easily as rigid as it is, it will break them. Another problem? There is a solution? Yes there is. If the protruding unrelated tendon that stops bending does not stop at the base foot of the wall, but extends and anchors into the ground, then the forces of the earthquake are deflected into the ground. The knots will not present great torques, capable of breaking the beams. For this reason I do not connect the base sole with the ground but I join the upper ends of the sides of the walls with the ground with tense tendons without relevance. The reason is that with this method I stop both the torque of the joints coming from the bend, and the critical failure area of ​​the wall. The critical failure area of ​​the walls is created in the cross section of the wall which is close to the base. This creates a potential difference in the adhesion of the reinforcement and the concrete. With the method of the invention, the tense unrelated tendon which is both anchored to the ground and the upper end of the wall, there is no potential difference or critical failure area. The problem of deformation with fringe failures is solved! In addition, the imposition of compressive stresses on the cross-section of the wall succeeds in increasing the strength of its cross-section in the developing shears, increases the active cross-section, improves the trajectories of the oblique tensile force and reduces the cracks. The ground anchor mechanism increases the strength of the ground so that it can accept higher compressive loads.
As we see in the figure
https://scontent.fath4-2.fna.fbcdn.n...1e&oe=5FC4220F
The earthquake forces an accelerated displacement at the base of the structure on (A) The structure refuses to follow the accelerated displacement thus creating a force in the opposite direction of this inertia the (B) The force (B) directs to the joint (1) which goes to rotate the wall. During the rotation the upward force is created (2) This force is received by the tendon (3) and sent to the ground.
https://www.researchgate.net/post/Me...nto_the_ground
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  #113  
Old Posted Nov 29, 2020, 1:26 PM
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According to modern regulations, the seismic design of buildings is based on the requirements of adequate design and plasticity. The inevitable inelastic behavior under strong seismic excitation is directed at selected elements and failure mechanisms.
In particular, the lack of adequate design of the nodes and the clearly limited plasticity of the elements lead to fragile forms of failure.
In short, they necessarily manage the failure which they can not control because they can not control the large deformation resulting from the large displacement of the ground with characteristics of high acceleration, large oscillation width and seismic duration.
They basically send forces to the nodes, which divide them into the cross sections of the trunks of the elements of which they are composed.
Conclusion
The strength of a structure depends on the numerous unbalanced coefficients and in part random factors of the earthquake, and on the strength of the sections. (The direction of the earthquake is unknown, the exact content of the seismic excitation frequencies is unknown, its duration is unknown.) Even the maximum possible accelerations given by seismologists, and determine the seismic design factor, have a probability of exceeding more than 10%.
What do I do with the design proposal.
I just deflect the seismic intensities in the ground.
How?
With the method of designing, pre-tensioning and anchoring the sides of the walls from their upper ends to the foundation ground, using unrelated tendons, which have at the ends ground anchoring mechanisms as well as anchoring and pre-tensioning mechanisms, I hope to bend the inclinations. and to transport them through the tendons and the vertical large and strong cross-sections of the walls into the ground, preventing and preventing their turning and bending of the trunk, which cause the deformation of the bearing organism which is directly connected with the failures of the construction in earthquake.
The compaction of the soil mechanism at the same time ensures a stronger bearing capacity of the foundation soil. With the appropriate sizing design of the walls and their placement in appropriate places, we also prevent the torsional buckling that occurs in asymmetric and high metal structures.
The good thing about the design method I suggest is that it does not negate the existing seismic design method but has the ability to amplify it so effectively that together they can defeat any earthquake.
The fact that I send the magnitudes of the earthquake into the ground has been proven experimentally.
If you watch this video after 2.40 minutes you will see that the beams that support the seismic base are partially raised.
The beams in the experiment represent the ground and after they are partially raised it means that the stresses are deflected - they return to the ground and do not go to the cross sections of the beams to break them.
In the second video which follows the existing design method and does not have the anchoring mechanism collapses.
Pay attention to the cross sections at the nodes that break at a much lower acceleration.
Question
Why are you still planning like this?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoM5pEy7n9Q&t=29s
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l-X4tF9C7SE&t=8s
The patent works statically like a prestressed valley bridge. Why? ... the patent works better on reinforced concrete walls than it does on columns? Answer. Works best on elongated walls for three reasons a) On the pillar we can place only one anchoring mechanism, while on the walls we place more anchoring mechanisms, one on each of its many sides. More anchor mechanisms, more earthquake response force. b) The pillar is a huge lever. To find the overturning force of the column, multiply the force by the distance. Example. If the pillar receives at its upper end a lateral force of 10 tons and the distance of the force from the base is 3 meters then the tipping force is 3x10 = 30 tons. The wall If we have a wall with dimensions 3 meters high and 2 meters wide and apply a lateral force of 10 tons at its highest point, the tipping force will be ... height X force / width That is 3X10 / 2 = 15 tons. Conclusion. the mechanism receives less tipping force on the walls than it receives with the columns. c) The cross-sections of the reinforced concrete of the vertical bearing elements are more stressed in compression when it has the patent. By increasing the cross section of the vertical elements of the bearing body, ... the ability of the reinforced concrete to receive compressive forces increases. Elongated walls usually have a larger cross section than columns, so they are more resistant to compressive forces. For the above three reasons, the elongated walls have a higher performance with the patent than the columns. Another reason is that the walls do not bend as easily as the columns so they have little deformation and even increased resistance to shear.
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  #114  
Old Posted Jan 7, 2021, 5:37 PM
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The new design method solves seismic problems of structures

Critical failure area is the cross-sectional area of a rod that breaks when bent.
In this area that breaks, a compressive tension is created on one side of the rod and a tensile tension on the other side.
We know that the compressive tendency is created when two opposing forces tend to compress a body and the tension is created when two opposing forces tend to lengthen a body.
Let's take the tensile. We said opposite forces in a different direction. Nice!
Somewhere at the point of intersection of the rope these opposing forces must separate their direction. If a rope is pulled by 10 people at one end and ten other people at the other end, the rope will break in the middle between these two groups of people.
This area where the rope will break is the critical failure area.
The critical failure area receives the greatest stresses and is the point at which the opposite tensile forces separate their direction to lengthen the body.
That is, if two groups of people pull a rope, another is the direction of the forces of these people pulling from the right and another of these people pulling from the left.
The rope - reinforcing steel, is very strong because it withstands tensile.

The hands try to pull the rope and if the force is great they can not because they can not withstand the friction or otherwise the shear stresses that develop on the surface of the rope and hands.
That is, the mechanism of relevance is destroyed by the high resistance of the rope (or reinforcing steel) to tension.
What does Potential Difference mean?
The friction between the hands and the rope as well as the force developed on the left side where only one person pulls one end of the rope is not the same as that developed on the right side when more people pull. So there is a potential difference in the forces and the mechanism of relevance.
Relevance
The cooperation between concrete and steel is achieved through the mechanism of relevance. When we say the mechanism of relevance we mean the combined action of the mechanisms which prevent the relative sliding between the bars of the steel reinforcement and the concrete that surrounds them. The mechanism of the connection consists of the adhesion, the friction and in the case of steel bars with embossed shape, the resistance of the concrete which is trapped between the ribs. <The combined action of these mechanisms creates a radial development of shear stresses applied to the concrete and steel interface.> When these stresses reach their limit value, the correlation mechanism is destroyed, with the concrete breaking along the steel bars, and the steel detaching from the concrete.
After what has been mentioned above, let 's talk practically It is often more difficult in a research to identify problems than to find the solution. Steel withstands tensile and concrete withstands mechanical compression.
A reinforced concrete wall when it receives lateral external seismic loads creates a force of its overturning and a bend in its trunk.
In both cases of bending and compression, one side of the wall receives compressive loads and the other side tensile loads.
The concrete takes the compression on one side of the wall and the steel the tension on the other side of the wall.
The cooperation of concrete and steel is achieved through the mechanism of relevance.
Shear stresses are created on the interface of the two materials.
Here we see that the concrete receives the compressive strengths of the wall but also receives strong shear stresses from the steel that pulls it.
The question is whether the concrete withstands the strong shear stresses imposed on it by the pull of steel? No it can not withstand and for this reason we have the pulling or otherwise slipping of steel through the concrete, and the destruction of the coating concrete around the steel.
That is, if you put steel in butter, there will never be cooperation because butter does not withstand the pull of steel.
If you put more pieces of steel in the butter or concrete you will have greater strength; Is it a Question?
Bending always creates tension on one side of the wall, and a critical area of failure.
What do we mean by critical failure area? Mechanical stress is created when two forces are opposite and tend to compress the body and tensile is created when two opposite forces tend to lengthen the body. The critical failure area is the area where the compressive and tensile forces separate their direction.
In this area of the wall cross-section (the critical failure area) the maximum intensities are created and the result is that the failure is created in this area.
In a beam the main critical area of failure due to bending, appears in its center while in a high-rise construction of a high-rise building the critical area of failure appears in the cross section of the wall near the base.
This means that there is a potential difference in the adhesion of concrete and steel as well as the forces are greater, from the critical failure zone and above that of the critical failure zone and below.
It is as if we have ten people pulling a rope on one side and one person pulling on the other. Potential difference is created at both ends of the rope in friction and traction
Combine now the potential difference I mentioned, with the inability of the concrete to absorb the shear forces that develop on the steel and concrete surface, to understand the inability of the two materials to work together, which use the co-operation mechanism of relevance.
There is something worse that develops on the walls, and that is the lever arm mechanism, created by the relevance mechanism.
Lever arm is any pillar or wall that extends from the base to the roof. We know that the lever arm of the wall, lowers large torques at the base which are impossible to receive without failing the lower cross sections of the load-bearing elements.





Conclusion
1) The multiplication of the stresses created by the wall lever arm mechanism, 2) in combination with the difference in traction potential and the difference in forces developed around the critical failure area and 3) the inability of the concrete to pick up the Shear forces developed on the concrete and steel surface create a combined explosive failure resulting in the destruction of the the mechanism of relevance. The shear failure occurs both in the coating concrete and in the entire cross section of the wall near the base. See the photo.

The forces that develop in the structure during the oscillation caused by the earthquake, exist but appear as a result of the failure. The response of structures to seismic shifts depends on where we plan to deflect or otherwise drive the developing seismic forces. Modern seismic design regulations use cross-sections of load-bearing elements to resist seismic forces.
That is, they send forces to the cross sections. If the earthquake has a high acceleration and duration and the construction does not have mechanisms for damping seismic energy, then the construction will not stand in this earthquake.


It is a design error of modern regulations to direct seismic forces only on the cross sections of the bearing elements. Some of the seismic forces could be absorbed by mechanisms that convert seismic kinetic energy into thermal energy and designed to deflect seismic forces out of the structure by driving them into the foundation soil. This design requires union all the upper edges of the siding walls, with the foundation soil, using anchoring and seismic damping mechanisms. ( two in one )
This design method could work together with the cross sections of the supporting elements to increase the response of the structure to seismic forces.
The solution to the mentioned problems
There are two main forces that contribute to the destruction of the building. The others are their components. One force comes from the earthquake, which the earthquake imposes on the structure down at its base because it displaces it with an acceleration (a) and the other from the inertia of the mass of the building. These two forces together create the overthrow of the walls and even the overthrow of the whole building, which I try to stop by imposing opposing forces with the help of the anchoring mechanism, which forces the anchoring mechanism take them from the ground.
See the figure.

The displacement of the ground (A) creates the inertia force (B) which creates the overturning moment of the wall (Γ) with the help of the joint which allows the rotation. This tipping moment creates two forces. The force (1) which is directed through the cross section of the wall diagonally down to the joint and balances with the reaction of the ground The other force is upward (2) and rises from the cross section of the other side of the wall. The upward force (2) contrasts with the static loads of the structure and creates tensile strength.
I place a tendon (3) which freely penetrates the side of the wall as well as the length of a bore under the sole of the base. The lower end of the tendon is anchored to the ground using an anchoring mechanism, and the upper end of the tendon is anchored to the top level of the side of the wall with a screw.
I take a force from the ground and transfer it to the highest level of the wall of the wall so that this force opposes the upward force (2) and prevents the wall from tipping over and its trunk from bending. This stops the deformation of the whole construction.
If we control the deformation we will not have failures. It is like putting a finger on the top of the wall to stop the wall from tipping over. If it is useful we can impose prestressing loads on the cross section of the wall. But this is not very necessary if we do not want to lose plasticity or part of it. Without tension there is no bending, there is no critical failure area.
Without relevance there is no shear failure (on the concrete-steel surface) due to the tensile strength of the steel. Without torque of the wall and bending of the trunk, there are no large moments in the nodes. There is no longer a potential difference.
Concrete receives only compressive forces and steel only tensile forces.
With the method of designing, prestressing and anchoring the sides of the walls from their upper ends to the foundation ground, using unrelated tendons, which at the ends have ground anchoring mechanisms as well as prestressing mechanisms, I hope to change the direction of forces and to transport them through the tendons and the vertical large and strong cross-sections of the walls into the ground, preventing them from turning and bending the trunk, which cause the deformation of the bearing organism which is directly connected with the construction failures in the earthquake. In any case, this extra reaction that the cross-sections need to successfully deal with the earthquake could be derived from the proposed design methodology.
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  #115  
Old Posted Jan 7, 2021, 5:44 PM
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The new design method (solves seismic problems of structures)

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  #116  
Old Posted Apr 3, 2021, 4:49 PM
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Truths and lies about the seismic shielding of structures.

The intensity of earthquake damage designed to withstand any construction depends on the acceleration of the ground that will reach under the construction and not on the magnitude of the Richter which measures the amount of intensity at the epicenter of seismic activity. The acceleration of the ground and the mass of the structure multiplying create the whole product of the intensity of inertia, which computationally determines the intersection of the base. The reinforced concrete structure stands on vertical support elements, which consist of columns, walls, and large elongated walls, which inertia causes them to overturn. To calculate the magnitude of the moments of the inversion forces, we multiply the magnitude of the inertia by the height at which the inertia force acts and divide the result by the width of the wall. The result of the mathematical operations will show us that the columns are overturned more easily than the elongated walls are overturned and this is because they have a large width.
The body of the vertical elements is designed to have elasticity and ductility and the elasticity depends on the size and shape of their cross section and the construction materials and the ductility from the placement configuration of the steel reinforcement.
Elastic is the displacement during which the construction returns to its original position and does not show failures. Inelastic displacement is that during which the construction shows leaks - failures and no longer has the ability to return to its original position.
The plasticity of structural elements and structures made of reinforced concrete is characterized by their ability to deform beyond the leakage limit, without significantly reducing their strength.
In the dynamics of structures we study the structures in dynamic stress as a consequence of seismic movement of the ground. The columns have high ductility and low dynamics, while elongated walls have low ductility and high dynamics. According to § 5.2.1 of EC8 there is a design option of the available plasticity of the building. Reinforced concrete buildings can be studied with two different design methods. a) To be designed with the necessary ductility, which means to have the required - necessary ability to consume seismic energy, but without losing their resistance to all loads during the rocking of the earthquake. b) To be designed with low ductility, (low energy consumption,) but have very great dynamics.
Columns that have a small and square cross section have greater elasticity than large elongated walls, but do not have the dynamics of large walls.
Basically in the design, the columns mainly undertake the static loads and the walls the static loads as well as the dynamic stress due to seismic movement of the ground.
The response of the structure to seismic displacement intensities depends on the dynamics of the sections and the damping measures of the structure. Another factor that contributes to the collapse of the structure is the duration of the earthquake. A construction can withstand high acceleration for a short time or small acceleration for a long time. Constructions in areas where statistically large and frequent earthquakes occur are designed to withstand an acceleration of 0.36g (1g is the acceleration of a body falling to the ground and equal to 9.81m / sec) In Greece, the largest earthquake recorded had an acceleration of 1g The largest earthquake recorded in the world had an acceleration of 2.9g Here we conclude that even the best constructions in the very large earthquake with duration are not safe. If there is coordination of ground construction, the collapse of the structures is certain. For the above reasons, it is a myth to claim that today's constructions are 100% safe from earthquakes. The reason that the structures collapse in the earthquake is that the tensions that are created are recycled and increase during the earthquake and because the cross-sectional strengths of the bearing elements are insufficient in large earthquakes with duration. If we increase the size and reinforcement of the cross-sections of the load-bearing elements, we also increase the intensities because the additional mass increases the inertia. If the constructions are high and rigid, they are in danger of total overturning. There are of course seismic energy damping mechanisms that help the construction cope better, such as horizontal seismic insulation, (bearings), hydraulic dampers that convert kinematic energy into thermal, viscous dampers, the plasticity of structures and more. These mechanisms help the construction a lot but there are also very large earthquakes with acceleration close to 3g that does not save any construction because they can not control the inelastic displacement above 0.5 g and this, for a short time. The structures that will survive in such a large earthquake will be those where they will be far away from the earthquake, or those whose soil composition will not allow the transfer of high seismic acceleration below the base. Even today's anti-seismic designs are very expensive and are only placed in projects of great importance. Even poor countries can not afford the current seismic regulations, and even more so in the installation of seismic damping systems. Question Is there a solution for cheap and seismically shielded constructions? Answer. Yes there is as long as the seismic design changes a bit. The solution is to remove the stresses above the construction and prevent their additional recycling within the seismic duration which increases the stresses in each seismic charge cycle. How do we do that? Answer Joining the construction with the ground shivering outside the construction the magnitudes of the earthquake. And where will we lead the seismic intensities? Answer ... in the ground. How do we do that? Answer With double pre-tensioning The first prestressing is applied before the construction of the project on the ground surface, in an anchoring mechanism which is placed in the depths of a bore under the base foot and which during the prestressing expands towards the slopes, compresses them creating a strong anchorage. The second pretension is applied after the completion of the bearing body, between the upper ends of the construction and the anchored anchorage. If we place at each end of the elongated walls by a mechanism then during rocking the tensions are transferred into the ground and not on the cross sections around the nodes to break them. And this happens in every seismic loading cycle so the duration of the earthquake does not bring additional loads to the construction. Even with this method there is no coordination. If the pre-tensioning of the elongated walls reduces the displacement of the structure, then the pre-tensioning of the ground also reduces the seismic displacements. The case of whether the proposed foundation soil eliminates or reduces soil oscillations is also being investigated. But it definitely compresses it because the pre compresses horizontally and vertically, improving its durability.
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Old Posted Apr 6, 2021, 3:33 PM
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Method for controlling the inevitable inelastic displacements of structures during an

Method for controlling the inevitable inelastic displacements of structures during an earthquake.

Bending, tipping moment, subsidence, torsional buckling = deformation and inelastic deformation = failure. These are the weapons of the earthquake to destroy our constructions, their content and our lives. In an earthquake the uneven deformations of the structure are as many as the multi-directional displacements of the earthquake. All materials have a small or large elasticity when bent and when terminated, inelastic displacement follows. Elasticity is the displacement of a pillar when it does not show leaks - failures. Inelastic is the displacement of a pillar when it shows leaks - failures. When the column is displaced in the elastic region, its body returns to its original position. When the pillar is displaced in the inelastic region, its body does not return to its original position. That is, the deformation in the inelastic displacement is permanent. If the leak failures are small there is no problem. But if the failure leaks become large cracks, and pass to a breaking point, and there are many on the construction, the construction will collapse. Today we have modern seismic regulations. I believe that modern seismic regulations have a big problem because they are unable to control the inevitable inelastic behavior of the structure if the earthquake is large. If we could control the deformation of structures in large earthquakes, so that it never passes into inelastic deformation but only shifts within the elastic region then we would not have failures and collapses. My research is based on inventing the method and mechanisms that will control the deformation of structures when very large earthquakes occur, so that their displacement always takes place within the elastic region where there are no failures. To stop the deformation of the structure, I must ensure that the bearing elements do not deform, eliminating the causes that create deformation. Deformation is caused by 1) bending, 2) tipping moment, 3) soil subsidence, 4) from torsional buckling 1. We prevent bending in two ways a) Constructing elongated walls with multidimensional cross section. b) Applying compression to the cross section of the walls, from all its sides, using the pre-tensioning mechanism with high-strength tendons. 2. We stop the overturning moment of the wall by anchoring the wall with the foundation ground. Today they try to stop the torque of the wall with the beams with which they are connected at the nodes. But ... When the earthquake is big, the torque of the wall increases, bending the trunks of the beams inelasticly, the construction breaks and collapses.

For this reason, on the one hand, I created ground and wall anchoring in order to direct the overturning intensities in the ground in order to prevent them from being driven on the trunks - cross sections of the beams and to break them, and on the other hand, I stopped the deformation of the wall trunk from bending. , by imposing compressive stresses on its cross section. And the bending of the wall transmits bending intensities to the beams and breaks them. 3. Uneven subsidence of the soil causes deformation in the cross sections of the bearing elements. The anchoring mechanism I created does not allow subsidence 4. Torsional buckling It is usually created in asymmetrical, tall, and metal structures. I solved this kind of deformation by properly sizing the cross-sections of the elongated walls and by imposing compressive stresses on their cross-sections. Without deformation there are no failures. I neutralized the cutting base and the shear failure by imposing compressive stresses on the cross sections of the walls. Experiment, made according to the rules of the micro-scale, but with an acceleration of 2.41g of natural earthquake, with a very long duration. The best constructions today are designed to withstand 0.36g and can withstand for a short time up to 0.7g https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoM5pEy7n9Q

The cross-sections around the nodes react to the overturning torque of the wall with opposite torques. The weakest are the cross sections of the beams which fail first. Question Why not make them stronger? Answer To make them stronger we must add mass of concrete and steel. But the mass increases the inertia and therefore the tensions. The opposite momentum coming from the ground has no mass so it does not create inertia tensions. So the opposite torques of the beams (those created within the elastic displacement area) together with the opposite torques coming from the ground balance the overturning torque of the wall and no failures occur.

Last edited by seismic; Apr 6, 2021 at 7:48 PM.
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  #118  
Old Posted Apr 11, 2021, 1:24 PM
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Results of seismic simulation experiments with and without the patent

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  #119  
Old Posted Apr 16, 2021, 8:55 PM
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The behavior of the structure during an earthquake is basically a horizontal displacement (let's forget for a moment any vertical component) that is repeated a few times. If the displacement is small enough to hold all the members of the structure within the elastic region, the energy generated is energy stored in the structure (in the body of the elements) and then released to restore the structure to its original shape. Like the spring. This energy storage and then its performance in the opposite direction applied by the spring, in the construction is stored and released by the pillar and the beam. In short, all the acceleration of the earthquake is converted into stored energy in the structure. As long as the displacement holds each part of any member within an elastic region, all the energy stored in the structure will circulate at the end of the cycle, in the opposite direction. This displacement region is called the elastic region, in which no failures are observed. If the seismic energy (measured by ground acceleration) is too large, it will produce excessively large displacements that will cause a very high curvature in the vertical and horizontal elements. If the curvature is too high, this means that the rotation of the sections of columns and beams will be well above the elastic area (Compressive concrete deformation over 0.35% and reinforcement fiber stresses over 0.2 %) beyond the leakage limit. When the rotation exceeds this limit of elasticity, the structure begins to "dissolve the energy storage" through plastic displacement, which means that the parts will have a residual displacement that will not be able to be recovered (while in the elastic region all displacements are recovered). Basically the design of the strength of a current building is limited to the limits of the elastic design range, and then goes to the default plastic leak areas, which are default areas of small and many leak failures, (usually designed to occur at the ends of the beams) so that it does not collapse the structure. This is the mechanism of plasticity that consumes seismic energy. (Structure collapses when oblique / failed columns fail) If the parts that experience the plastic deformations exceed the breaking point limit, and there are too many on the structure, the structure will collapse.
It is known that the columns and the walls are joined at the nodes with the beams. Any change in the position of the vertical axis of the trunk of the wall and the pillar is transferred to the trunk of the beam.
This is what I mean when I say that your design recycles tensions. That is, the intensities of bending and tipping moment of the vertical elements, are transferred and recycled around the nodes. My design does not send tensions to the cross sections around the nodes. My design sends the right compression and tensile forces of the wall into the ground. This is the main difference.
It is a method that uses a mechanism to pontoon nodes of higher level of constructions with earth and which dynamically deflect the lateral load of the earthquake through the vertical support elements and directs them into the ground controlling in this way the oscillation of the construction.
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  #120  
Old Posted Apr 17, 2021, 4:29 PM
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The big mistakes of modern seismic design.

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