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Researchers Achieve Higher Solar-Cell Efficiency With Zinc-Oxide Coating
Surface modification allows cell to absorb more light
Tuesday, April 22, 2014
FAYETTEVILLE, Ark. – Engineering researchers at the University of Arkansas have achieved the highest efficiency ever in a 9 millimeter-squared solar cell made of gallium arsenide. After coating the cufflink-sized cells with a thin layer of zinc oxide, the research team reached a conversion efficiency of 14 percent.
A small array of these cells – as few as nine to 12 – generate enough energy for small light-emitting diodes and other devices. But surface modification can be scaled up, and the cells can be packaged in large arrays of panels to power large devices such as homes, satellites, or even spacecraft.
The research team, led by Omar Manasreh, professor of electrical engineering, published its findings in Applied Physics Letters and the April 2014 issue of Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells.
An alternative to silicon, gallium arsenide is a semiconductor used to manufacture integrated circuits, light-emitting diodes and solar cells. The surface modification, achieved through a chemical synthesis of thin films, nanostructures and nanoparticles, suppressed the sun’s reflection so the cell could absorb more light. But even without the surface coating, the researchers were able to achieve 9-percent efficiency by manipulating the host material.
“We want to increase the efficiency of small cells,” said Yahia Makableh, doctoral student in electrical engineering. “With this specific material, the theoretical maximum is 33 percent efficiency, so we have some work to do. But we’re making progress. The beauty of zinc oxide is that it’s cheap, non-toxic and easy to synthesize.”
Makableh said the surface modification could also be applied to other solar cells, including those made of indium-arsenide and gallium-arsenide quantum dots. Solar cells made of these materials may be able to achieve 63-percent conversion efficiency, which would make them ideal for future development of solar cells.
Makableh used equipment and instrumentation in the College of Engineering’s Optoelectronics Research Lab, which is directed by Manasreh. Researchers in the lab grow and functionalize semiconductors, nanostructured anti-reflection coatings, self-cleaning surfaces and metallic nanoparticles to be used in solar cells. Their ultimate goal is to fabricate and test photovoltaic devices with greater solar-energy conversion efficiency.
UK installs 1.1 GW of solar PV in Q1 2014, dominated by utility-scale projects
Driven by a boom in utility-scale PV, the UK installed 1.085 GW of solar photovoltaics (PV) in the first three months of 2014, according to NPD Solarbuzz Inc. (Santa Clara, California, U.S.).
This brings the nation to 4.46 GW of cumulative installed PV. The company expects this booming market to continue, citing policy stability and the success of the Renewables Obligation Credit (ROC) program.
“With the future of onshore wind looking increasingly at risk, a new Solar Strategy released from DECC, a likely reduction in Chinese module pricing in Europe, and a whopping project pipeline growing under 1.4 ROCs, it begs the question: can it get any better for the UK solar PV industry?” asks NPD Solarbuzz VP Finlay Colville.
Larger ground-mounted installations dominate new capacity
NPD Solarbuzz marks October 2013 as a turning point for the UK PV industry, given the resolution of the EU's trade case with China through the price undertaking. In the six months since October 1st, 2013, the nation has installed 1.54 GW of PV.
Of this capacity installed in these six months, 78% was in the ground-mounted segment, as opposed to only 22% in the rooftop segment. Of these ground-mounted installations, PV projects larger than 10 MW made up 2/3 of capacity.
Deployment of distributed solar PV to grow secondary power electronics market 134% annually
GTM Research Inc. (Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.) has issued a new report predicting that the market for secondary power electronics equipment for solar photovoltaic (PV) integration will grow by 134% annually over the next three years to reach USD 320 million in 2017.
This will be driven by the expansion of PV and its effects on the distribution grid. GTM's “Advanced Grid Power Electronics for High Penetration PV Integration 2014” notes that secondary power electronics also allow grid operators to improve distribution grid efficiency through conservation voltage reduction, enhanced control over power quality and improved situational awareness.
“Utility-owned power electronics offer a variety of services for utilities at a fraction of the cost of competing storage solutions,” said GTM Research Senior Grid Analyst Ben Kellison.
“These enable utilities to fine tune unstable portions of the distribution grid, while allowing the bulk of the grid to operate using cheaper, more traditional technology.”
Contact: Komunikazio Bulegoa
Quantum simulators developed to study inaccessible physical systems
Quantum simulators recreate the behaviour on a microscopic scale of biological and quantum systems and even of particles moving at the speed of light. The exact knowledge of these systems will lead to applications ranging from more efficient photovoltaic cells to more specific drugs. Researchers in the UPV/EHU’s department of Physical Chemistry are working on the design of several of these quantum simulators so they can study the dynamics of complex physical systems.
Quantum mechanics is the mathematical tool that enables us to describe the physical processes that take place on a microscopic level; it is capable of satisfactorily predicting the stability of atoms and molecules, the reactivity of different chemical compounds, or the result of the interaction between radiation and matter. They are all situations that constitute the basis of our physical world and for which there is no explanation within the framework of classical physics. “The physical processes that take place on a quantum level obey such sophisticated mathematical models that they cannot be analysed by means of today’s computers because of the computational limitations of these devices,” explained Dr Jorge Casanova, researcher in the UPV/EHU's department of Physical Chemistry. One possible way of solving the problem of computational complexity of physical systems is to use a quantum platform or technology as a simulator.
Quantum simulators are systems capable of reproducing the dynamics of a specific physical system, and overcoming the limitation of conventional computers. Among the various technologies that are studied with a view to developing efficient quantum simulators, this UPV/EHU research group has been focussing on the technology of trapped ions. “Basically, these systems work by isolating individual atoms in a controlled environment so that there is no interference with the environment. They then undergo laser treatment, and after that, it is possible to conduct operations like exciting or de-exciting the electrons of these atoms. That way they are made to behave like the system we want to study," explained Casanova, the lead author of the work.
Turning Solar Farms into Actual Farms, Too
Posted on April 22 2014 by Scott Thill
Consolidating precious natural resources in a warming world is a must. Which is why literal solar farms make sense — and maybe dollars — to Stanford scientists recently researching a colocation approach for simultaneously creating solar power and biofuels. It’s a simple idea, really: Grow some agave plants beneath vast solar farms across Earth’s increasingly arid regions, and voila! You’ve got a potential agritech solution for decreasing lethal emissions, and perhaps a reliable source of domestic fuel.
More microcosmically, the solar sector could reduce its water footprint by relying instead more heavily on agave, and what Stanford’s colocation announcement called “other biofuel crops,” to capture runoff and moisture to keep our photovoltaic panels cleaner in inhospitable climates. It sounds good on paper; specifically, the new issue of Environmental Science & Technology wherein Stanford’s scientists explain their collocated energy concept.
“It could be a win-win situation,” said Stanford postdoc Sujith Ravi in a press release. “Water is already limited in many areas and could be a major constraint in the future. This approach could allow us to produce energy and agriculture with the same water.”
Florida lawmakers press Duke Energy to invest in solar, efficiency
By Claire Cameron
April 23, 2014
- State and federal officials in Florida are calling on Duke Energy to invest more in clean energy.
- In a letter delivered to Duke Energy Florida President Alex Gleen, lawmakers expressed “support for clean energy" and urged Duke "to deepen its investment in energy efficiency and solar power in Florida.”
- Duke Energy spokesperson Nicole LeBeau said that the company had received the letter and would respond in due course.
This is part of a larger campaign by the Sierra Club. Karl Nurse, a city council member for St. Petersburg, said Duke Energy Florida is lagging behind the utility’s efforts to increase energy efficiency projects in other states. Officials said the letter wasn’t intended to reflect negatively on the utility; rather, it is intended to “empower us to do more to bring more energy efficiency and solar” to Florida, they said.
Currently, Florida ranks 16th in the U.S. for total number of solar installations, and 26 other states had better-performing energy efficiency programs than Florida. Lawmakers hope increasing energy efficiency efforts will help boost the state’s economy.
Top 5 Reasons Solar Energy Will Save the World
Posted on Apr 23, 2014
By Juan Cole
This post originally ran on Juan Cole’s Web page.
1. The research and development monies now going into solar energy are great enough to fuel innovation and bring down prices rapidly. First Solar expects solar electricity generation costs to fall from 63 cents a watt to 35 cents a watt from now through 2017!
2. Honda is experimenting with a zero-carbon home. It includes a direct DC recharger for an electric car so as to cut down on energy lost to heat during the DC to AC conversion. Charging would take only 2 hours, direct from sunlight.
3. Thin-skin solar panels will be installed directly on the cars, and a canopy recharger will fill them back up.
4. Even poor countries of the global South like Pakistan are finding it affordable now to create enormous solar parks. Bahawalpur faces blackouts and a deficit of 4 gigawatts of electricity. It will soon get 1 gigawatt of electricity from solar and other renewables.
5. After seeing the way Russia is bullying Western Europe over opposition in Brussels to Russia grabbing Ukrainian territory, with Russia threatening to cut off natural gas, many countries will be encouraged to invest in renewable energy sources that cannot be cut off. Thailand is investing in 3 gigawatts of solar energy, not only because its government wants more electricity but because it wants more energy independence! The falling price of solar panels will give a further economic motive for going green, but tensions in the ASEAN countries over the possibility of gradually being reduced to Chinese puppets are real– something Obama is trying to address on his current trip to Japan and other countries of the far east. The alternative to solar, hydraulic fracturing (fracking) to produce natural gas, is not affordable in many countries; it uses enormous amounts of precious water, damages the environment, and produces huge methane emissions that threaten deadly climate disruption. Solar gives both cost savings and security, as well as a brighter climate future.
SkyFuel's Parabolic Trough in Stillwater Hybrid Geothermal Plant
Published on 23 April 2014
SkyFuel, Inc. is providing the parabolic trough solar field being integrated into the heating loop of Enel Green Power (EGP) North America's Stillwater geothermal power plant.
The solar field is designed to return the temperature of the brine from the geothermal wells to its original design point and thus recapture the full capacity and economic value of the existing turbine generator. All equipment for the solar troughs has been delivered and the system is expected to be operational by the end of 2014. This will be the world's first commercial plant integrating solar thermal power with geothermal.
Bloomberg Backs a Solar Lamp
Former Mayor's Foundation Aids Devise for Use in Africa
By Melanie Grayce West
April 21, 2014 10:04 p.m. ET
A trendy solar-powered lamp will soon brighten more homes and classrooms in Africa, thanks to a low-interest loan from the foundation of former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg.
Bloomberg Philanthropies is scheduled Tuesday to announce a $5 million deal with LittleSun GmbH, the German company that makes Little Sun, a hand-held solar-powered lamp created by Berlin artist Olafur Eliasson and Copenhagen engineer Frederik Ottesen. It is the first such support lent by the foundation to a so-called social business.
The lamp, introduced two years ago at the Tate Modern museum in London, is intended for use in areas where electricity is scarce and the primary source of lighting is kerosene lamps. The device is available in eight sub-Saharan African countries. At $9 to $17 apiece, the device pays for itself in roughly six months, say Mr. Eliasson and Rohit Aggarwala, who is part of the environmental group at Bloomberg Philanthropies.
The commitment from Bloomberg Philanthropies will allow Little Sun to expand production and distribution until these functions can be supported with the company's revenue.
The Little Sun device offers a "huge opportunity" from an environmental perspective, said Mr. Aggarwala.
Kerosene lamps produce carbon dioxide and throw off particulate matter. The foundation estimates one hour of breathing the fumes from a kerosene lamp is equivalent to 10 cigarettes.
The lamp "will improve the health and quality of life of the people who purchase it because you get away from indoor air-pollution issues which are detrimental to everyone, but especially detrimental to children," said Mr. Aggarwala.
Little Sun isn't the only company providing a solar-powered solution to replace kerosene or other fuel lamps in Africa. But Mr. Aggarwala and his team liked the quality of light from Little Sun and the "useful and attractive" design, he said. "The fact is…you could be living in an off-grid community in Africa making only a handful of dollars a day, you're still going to be attracted to good design."
The Little Sun lamp has been widely exhibited in museums, art fairs and music festivals and is sold at museum design stores. Mr. Eliasson, the artist, is best known in New York for his 2008 public-art installation comprising four artificial waterfalls around the city.
RWE Invests in Its First U.K. Solar Park; Conergy to Build
By Tino Andresen Apr 23, 2014 12:48 AM PT
RWE AG, the German utility that cut its renewables unit’s investments by two-thirds, is funding construction of its first U.K. solar park, to be built by Conergy U.K. Ltd.
The 37-megawatt Kencot Hill Solar Farm, on a disused airfield in Oxfordshire, England, will be one of the country’s largest, providing about 10,000 households with electricity, Essen-based RWE said today in a statement.
The park is scheduled to start operating in late summer. RWE, providing financial and technical support, agreed to sell the facility to Foresight Solar Fund Limited (FSFL) once constructed, it said.
“RWE aims in future to repeat this structure, attracting investors” in the U.K. and other European countries, Stefan Judisch, chief executive officer of RWE’s Supply & Trading unit, said in the statement, referring to the financing.
RWE’s renewables unit will invest 1 billion euros ($1.4 billion) from 2014 to 2016, a similar amount to last year alone. RWE posted its first loss last year since World War II.
Apr 23, 2014
SunPower and Google Form $250 Million Solar Lease Program
April 23 (Bloomberg) — SunPower Corp., the second-largest U.S. solar manufacturer, and Google Inc. are creating a $250 million program to finance residential solar systems.
The solar producer is committing $150 million and Google will provide $100 million, San Jose, California-based SunPower said today in a statement. The program will “help make solar accessible to more families,” said Chuck Boynton, the solar company’s chief financial officer.
The program will support solar leases for rooftop systems that use SunPower panels. Leasing, the fastest-growing part of the U.S. solar market, allows homeowners to pay little or nothing up front for systems in exchange for monthly payments.
This is the second clean-power investment in two days for the Mountain View, California-based search-engine company. Google has invested more than $1 billion in renewable energy worldwide, including two prior deals in residential solar, the company said on its website today.
SunPower gained 7.6 percent to $31.61 at 10:19 a.m. in New York. First Solar Inc. is the largest U.S. solar manufacturer.
Solar-thermal neighbourhood shines in Alberta
22 Apr 2014
Special to The Globe and Mail
Saving energy costs wasn’t the driving reason for Alberta mechanical engineer Robert Pugh’s move into a solar-heated community that was conceived a dozen years ago as the first of its kind in North America, where it remains unique in how it heats an entire subdivision in the winter.
You could say owning one of the 52 homes in the Drake Landing Solar Community (DLSC) in Okotoks, Alta., has proved to be an ethical ray of sunshine for residents, including Mr. Pugh, his wife Dana and their two young children.
Eight years after the completion of the DLSC, which is the brainchild of Natural Resources Canada and was developed in partnership with governmental organizations and private interests, Okotoks remains a shining example of how an entire community living much of the year in freezing weather can use the sun to drastically reduce dependency on fossil fuels.
Mr. Pugh, one of the first owners of a solar-heated home in Okotoks, a town of about 27,000 just south of Calgary, says he bought into the subdivision more for ideological reasons .
“I am extremely concerned about our carbon emissions and want to try to adjust my behaviour as much as I can,” Mr. Pugh says.
Drake Landing is the first – and according to Natural Resources Canada’s Doug McClenahan, still the only – large-scale, masterplanned community in North America to use borehole thermal energy storage (BTES). The technology stores solar energy in the ground in the summer to save it for winter, and acts as a large underground heat exchanger.
The 52 homes remain the largest subdivision of R-2000 singlefamily homes in Canada.
From the street, the homes don’t stand out as an example of cutting-edge green technology. Most of the solar magic happens at the back of the properties.
Mounted on the detached double garages located behind the homes are 800 flat-plate solar panels, which were manufactured by Enerworks, a Canadian solar equipment manufacturer. Glycol is used as the heat transfer fluid to move the thermal energy from the solar collectors through a network of insulated pipes to an Energy Centre, a 2,500-squarefoot building located in the corner of the community park, that houses short-term storage tanks .
The heat exchanger, using 144 boreholes drilled 37 metres into the earth, extracts the thermal energy from the solar collector loop that is stored in two 125,000litre steel tanks and transfers it to the surrounding soil. Heat is then recovered from the soil during the winter and transferred into a district energy network that is connected to each home, which has a low-temperature air handler that blows air across a warm fan coil.
4/21/2014 @ 9:35AM 3,797 views
Falling Solar Energy Costs Are Poised To Reshape The World's Economy
Jeremy Rifkin recently published a book called The Zero Marginal Cost Society. As an industry analyst it is my job to stay on top of technologies that have the chance to transform industry. Indeed, when MHI went through a very throrough research project to identify megatrends that will reshape industry through 2025, all the trends they identified, but one, are things that my company ARC has been paying close attention to.
Mr. Rifkin discusses the Internet of Things (IoT), advances in automation and robotics, 3D Printers, and the fundamental changes to our economy these things will drive. I’ve linked to just the most recent articles we have written on the topics of IoT and robotics transforming supply chains. ARC is less convinced that 3D Printers are transformative.
But Mr. Rifkind has identified one transformative trend ARC has clearly not paid enough attention to: the exponential price decline in solar power! I was somewhat doubtful this could be true, but a search of the Internet brings up research by Ramaz Naam, who published an article in Scientific American in 2011 on this topic. In a recent blog Mr. Naam states “the price decline in solar cost per watt has, if anything, accelerated since then!”
Exponential curves matter. Humans have a hard time comprehending exponential growth. Would you rather have one million dollars or be given one dollar on day one, two dollars on day two, four dollars on day three and so on for a one month period? Almost everyone would instantly say “I’ll take the million bucks.” Do the math, you’ll be surprised!
It is another exponential curve that is at the heart of the computer revolution, Moore’s Law. Moore’s law is the observation that, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles approximately every two years. This explains why while computers get so much more powerful, costs continue to decline. This will give you a sense of my age, but I can remember the first time I saw a spreadsheet and being astounded by the power of it. And I have continued to be amazed by one computer advance after another.
Over the last few years, there has been much focus on shale oil technologies. And truly, shale oil is proving to be a boon for the U.S. But remember the power of exponential curves! If these results are correct, we are in for a green energy future every bit as dramatic as the computer revolution.
Samoa sets sights on largest solar array in the Pacific
23. April 2014 | Applications & Installations, Global PV markets, Industry & Suppliers, Markets & Trends | By: Ian Clover
The tiny South Pacific country announces plans to build a 2.2 MW solar plant, with financial assistance from the Asia Development Bank and neighboring New Zealand.
Construction of the largest solar power array in the Pacific is expected to commence soon after New Zealand foreign minister Murray McCully announced this week details of a 2.2 MW plant for Samoa.
Commissioned as part of the European Union-New Zealand Energy Access Partnership, which was launched at the Pacific Energy Summit last year, the plant will be located in Samoa’s capital city, Apia, and will be financed via support from the Asia Development Bank.
"New Zealand is working in partnership with the government of Samoa, the European Union and the Asia Development Bank to increase the generation of renewable energy in Samoa," said McMully during a visit to the South Pacific island in which the minister toured further possible sites for renewable energy projects with EU Commissioner Andris Piebalgs.
"The 2.2 MW array at the Apia Sports Complex will provide the highest electrical output from a single installation in the Pacific, and is a major part of a larger renewable energy program funded by New Zealand," added the minister. "Renewable energy is a strong focus of New Zealand’s support to developing countries. The investments in Samoa reflect commitments made at the Pacific Energy Summit in Auckland last year."
Wind and solar generation half the cost of nuclear
By Sophie Vorrath on 23 April 2014
New-build wind and solar energy systems can generate electricity for up to 50 per cent cheaper than new nuclear power plants, a German study has found.
The research, commissioned by German think tank Agora Energiewende, compares feed-in tariffs for new nuclear in the UK with FiTs for renewables in Germany, and finds that nuclear and carbon capture and storage (CSS) – a technology not yet available in Europe – are both more expensive than wind and solar as energy strategies for preventing climate change.
Oklahoma utilities hit homes using solar with extra fee
By Bobby Magill on 23 April 2014
Anyone living in Oklahoma planning to power their home using a rooftop solar panel will soon be charged a fee for the right to do that while still being connected to the local power grid.
Oklahoma Gov. Mary Fallin signed the “solar surcharge” bill into law on Monday, permitting utilities to charge an extra fee to any customer using distributed power generation, such as rooftop solar or a small wind turbine.
Distributed generation is seen in many parts of the country as a way for cities and homeowners to modernize their power system and become more resilient in the face of extreme weather, brought about in part by climate change. Rooftop solar and wind turbines generate clean energy to help to keep homes’ lights on when the power grid fails.
Oklahoma’s new law states that it is aiming to prevent the majority of utility customers from “subsidizing” those with solar panels on their homes who offset the cost of electricity and grid maintenance costs by generating their own power and feeding it onto the grid and receiving credit for the power they generate.
The practice of utility customers providing home-generated power to the grid and receiving credits for the power they produce is called “net metering,” and is legal in most states. But, it is something the electric power industry considers a threat to traditional utilities, which use centralized power sources that distribute electricity to customers via the power grid.
“Right now, a distributed generation customer is really paying less for the maintenance of the infrastructure than our other customers,” despite the up-front costs of installing solar panels on a roof, said Kathleen O’Shea, spokeswoman for Oklahoma Gas and Electric, or OGE, one of the state’s largest utilities.
Of OGE’s 800,000 customers, between 200 and 400 of them use rooftop solar or wind, she said.
“As solar prices come down and this becomes more popular, we want to make sure everybody who’s using the grid is paying their fair share,” she said, adding that it’s unfair for the utility’s traditional customers — roughly 799,600 of them — to foot the bill for grid maintenance when several hundred people end up saving money by using their own solar panels to provide power to the utility while not paying the grid maintenance surcharge.
New York Solar Spreads like Wildfire, and is Only Getting Hotter
Posted on April 23 2014 by Guest Author
New York is a big state — almost 55,000 square miles of city, river, pasture, suburb, mountaintop, forest and coast. Yet, in the past few years solar power has been spreading like wildfire from one corner to the next. Throughout the state — on factory rooftops, schools, farms, homes, fire stations and stores — you can see solar panels glinting in the sun. They’re producing clean electricity, creating new jobs, and saving consumers money on their energy bills. And they’re doing all that while helping to combat climate change and cut other harmful air pollution that can cause and exacerbate asthma, lung cancer and heart disease.
In fact, after years as a solar pipsqueak — left in the dust by states like New Jersey to the south — New York is now rocketing up the solar ranks. By the end of 2013, we were 9th in the nation in total installed solar capacity with over 247 MW of solar power installed — that’s enough electricity to power 40,000 homes. And, better still, we’re now 5th in the nation in solar jobs: with now more than 5,000 good-paying positions in everything from solar installation and maintenance, to business development, sales, manufacturing and component supply.
Contact: University of Malaya Institution: University of Malaya
Malaysian and Taiwanese researchers make major advances in dye sensitized solar cells
Two groups of researchers have recently advanced the field of solar cells with a cheaper and efficient replacement for platinum and better synthesis of zinc oxide.
Working on dye-sensitized solar cells - researchers from University Malaya (UM) and National Tsing Hua University (NTHU) have achieved an efficiency of 1.12 %, at a fraction of the cost compared to those used by platinum devices.
This work has been accepted for publication in the journal, Nanoscale published by the Royal Society of Chemistry and has been selected for the front cover of the issue.
The study carried out in Taiwan took on the challenge of making the technology behind dye-sensitized solar cells more affordable by replacing the costly platinum counter-electrodes with bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) nanosheet arrays.
Using a novel electrolysis process, the group managed to closely manipulate the spacing between individual nanosheets and hence control the thermal and electrical conductivity parameters to achieve the high efficiency of 1.12%, which is comparable to platinum devices, but at only at a fraction of the cost.
The research was led by Prof. Yu-Lun Chueh of the Nanoscience & Nanodevices Laboratory, NTHU, and Alireza Yaghoubi, UM HIR Young Scientist. “In light of the recent report by the United Nations about the irreversible effects of fossil fuels on climate change and as we gradually run out of economically recoverable oil reserves, we think it is necessary to look for a sustainable, yet practical source of energy” Yaghoubi stated.
Meanwhile at University Malaya, Dr. Wee Siong Chiu and colleagues were working on controlling the secondary nucleation and self-assembly in zinc oxide (ZnO), a material which is currently being scrutinized for its potential applications in dye-sensitized solar cells as well as photocatalytic reactions to generate clean electricity by splitting water under sunlight.
In this work, Dr. Chiu and Alireza Yaghoubi demonstrated a new route for synthesis of various zinc oxide nanostructures using the lipophilic interactions between a novel precursor and a number of fatty acids. They are hoping to further use this method to increase the efficiency of photocatalysts in the visible regime where most of the sunlight energy lies.
According to the researchers, if this approach is successful, generating electricity is as easy as pouring some bioinert nanomaterials into a lake and fusing the split oxygen and hydrogen atoms back into water in a photoelectrochemical cell.