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seismic Feb 19, 2010 9:43 PM

My anti seismic systems
 
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My name is Yiannis Lymperis I was born in Athens Greece the time of 19-7-1958. When I finished the primary school in the age of eleven years old , I started work with my father in the site of building construction in Athens of Greece, and at the same time I was studying at school in the afternoon as a machinist and learn the mechanical design. Because I didn`t like to work as a machinist when I finished this school I started studying in an other school as a supervisor of constructions works. There I was learning the architect design during in the afternoon school, and working in the morning at the same time in buildings with my father ( who was a building contractor )as a brick-layer and as a carpenter for concrete works. Then I been to the army . And there I was working as a brick-layer. When I finished the army I been to England living there for four years and working as a brick-layer ( a different way of building from the buildings of Greece), around Midlands. When I left England and return back to Greece I started to be a contractor building houses on the island of IOS in Greece. Since then I live and work on the island of IOS. In my country I am a patentee already for my first invention which with the title ‘’TIE ROD FOR STRUCTURAL PROJECTS’’. For this invention my international application number has already been registered by the International Bureau Patent Cooperation Treaty. This invention ensures protection of structures from wind (hurricane damage) and earthquake, far more than the existing building methods. I am already in the national place for registering my second invention which has the title ‘’HYDRAULIC TIE FOR CONSTRUCTION’’ which is actually expensive but more effective on soft -unstable ground compared to my first invention which is more suitable for firm ground.

video of invention http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZcHBKRI

site of invention http://www.antiseismic-systems.com/i...emid=5&lang=en
:banana:

seismic Feb 19, 2010 9:48 PM

HYDRAULIC TIE ROD FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS


The present invention relates to a hydraulic tie rod for construction projects ensuring the protection of the construction structures against damage caused by earthquakes and hurricanes.

Background of the invention
The prior art scientific endeavours have focused on the anti-seismic and anti-wind protection of construction works. To deal with these natural phenomena successfully, efforts have mainly focused on improving the ground, the construction materials as well as on improving the German and the American static regulations. All these improvements produced good results, however, increased significantly the construction costs as regards the use of cement and steel and did not eliminate currently existing problems. There are still construction structures sustaining damage and losses, or even destroyed, by earthquakes and hurricanes and all that despite the improvements made. It is therefore necessary to redefine how the earthquake and wind forces are exerted onto the building structures and to re-examine whether the existing construction materials work together as expected for there must be some mistake made somewhere contributing to damage and destruction. To start with, regardless of how strong a building structure is, it will collapse if the ground on which it rests is unstable. To this date, ground improvement is achieved by ground compacting using end-bearing piles and friction piles or the vibration technique in order to prevent its fluidization during an earthquake. Considering that this kind of ground improvement which moreover requires soil sampling prior to its compaction is very expensive, it is not carried out in minor construction works and therefore such works are left exposed to serious risk should the ground subside. There is therefore a need to devise a mechanism that prevents a building structure from sliding on either soft soil or rocky ground during an earthquake. Another issue to be considered is whether the German or the American static regulations are adequate not so much as regards the strength of materials - the mechanical strength of materials is well known - but as regards the additional forces that are being generated during an earthquake, forces unknown in the prior art and once these additional forces are identified, an appropriate mechanism can be worked out to eliminate them and prevent damage to the structure. Figure 3 presents an analysis of the known static mechanics forces wherein a tensile force (42) is generated by two forces acting along the same axis but in opposite directions. It is a known fact that concrete (43) does not stand up to tensile forces and fractures. Steel (44) however stands up well to tensile forces and for this reason it is used together with concrete in appropriate locations to help concrete withstand the tensile forces generated. Compression (45) is another force generated when two forces are acting along the same axis but in opposite directions. Concrete (43) exhibits nearly the same behaviour as steel (44) in compressive loads. Shear force (46) is another force which occurs when two forces are applied on parallel axes but in opposite directions. Τhis force is exerted between steel (44) and concrete (43) at their point of contact. Buckling forces (48) occur when opposite forces are acting along the same axis but the distance (height) of the material on which they are applied is six times greater than the smallest dimension of its base. When such forces are exerted, the material tends to buckle like α razor blade (49) instead of taking the shape of a barrel (43) as in compression. Finally, there is the torsional force (50), which is generated when materials are subjected to twisting stress.

We will now consider the way these types of forces analysed above act on the building structure during an earthquake or under exceptionally high wind conditions. In situations involving an earthquake or very high winds (hurricanes), lateral forces are generated (see Figure 4 (40)). The building frame column (34) sways left and right as a result of the oscillations produced by the earthquake. During the swaying motion of the column, as seen in Figure 4, when the column tilts left, tension forces are generated (42) on its right side and compressive forces (45) on its left side. It is for this reason that steel is laid externally to "absorb" tensional forces from both sides alternately. When the column tilts to the right, the exact opposite occurs to what was just previously described and goes on throughout the duration of an earthquake. At this point, though, we are called to answer the question why columns break at point (55) although our static calculations on these forces are correct, the answer is simple. We know that steel withstands tensile stress (42) and our calculations are carried out on the basis of that knowledge. We do not, however, take into account the rest of the forces being generated. The first of these unknown forces, not taken into account usually, is that of buckling (48) generated in both concrete and steel and none of these materials can withstand buckling effectively. When column (34) tilts, the concrete in the column produces a steel displacing force (forcing steel to bend over backwards, so to speak) at point (60) and up to point (59). This happens because concrete that's on the inner side of the steel (44) withstands the compressive force generated between the two materials and this leads to an outward displacement of steel tending to push it out of the column. This being the case, steel cannot carry out the task of standing up to tension, this being the reason it was originally placed in the column. Another omission, that is not statically calculated, will now be shown using a simple illustration. If we take a candle (Figure 3 (52)) and break it near its base (53) we notice that its candlewick (51) will come out the bottom part of the candle, which provides less resistance in comparison to the top part of the candle, which is longer. This happens because the tensile force (42) generated on the candlewick (51) during breaking will create a shear force between the candle and the candlewick, which [shear force] is smaller in the bottom part of the candle compared to the other opposite shear force generated in the top part of the candle and this is because whenever tension occurs, there will always be shearing in response. This is exactly what happens to column (34) in Figure 4. Steel section (44) from point (58) to point (60) is less in length than steel section (44) from point (57) to point (59), thus concrete resistance to shear (46) in section from (58) to (60) is lower resulting in the steel being pushed out of the concrete in that section and leading to the collapse of the structure. Nearly always in building structures which collapse during an earthquake, column fracture occurs approximately at the same height as shown in Figure 4 with the steel being pushed out – not fractured, in other words, while steel can withstand much greater tensional forces, these forces are cancelled out due to concrete failure to resist the shear forces generated in the column section from point (58) to point (60). It follows from the foregoing description that a new method of laying steel within the column is required that would only allow the generation of shear forces (42) that steel (44) can withstand and compression forces (45) that concrete (43) can withstand. In other words, reinforcement should be laid in a way that prevents the generation of shear forces (46), between steel and concrete, which concrete cannot withstand.

All building load-bearing elements are constructed in a vertical and horizontal and rarely in a slanting manner, i.e. vertical columns, monolithic horizontal slabs, trusses, which collapse because, in columns (34), their vertical axis bends beyond the fracture point as stated earlier. Trusses collapse due to the buckling of their horizontal axis at the points of their contact with the columns owing to the wavy motion that, during an earthquake, is transmitted through the ground and which turns individual column bases and the columns themselves into column fracturing pistons. Trusses will also collapse due to the compressive (45), tensional (42), shear (46) and torsional forces exerted at the points of their support as a result of the "left and right" swaying of the building’s framework caused by an earthquake or very high winds.

Brief description of the invention
The principal object of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects of the present invention as well as of the method for constructing building structures utilizing the hydraulic tie rod of the present invention is to minimise the aforesaid problems associated with the safety of construction structures in the event of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, hurricanes and very high lateral winds. According to the present invention, this can be achieved by a continuous pre-stressing (pulling) of both the building structure towards the ground and of the ground towards the structure, making these two parts one body like a sandwich. Said pre-stressing is applied by means of the mechanism of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects. Said mechanism comprises a steel cable crossing freely in the centre the structure's vertical

seismic Feb 19, 2010 9:50 PM

support elements and also the length of a drilling beneath them. Said steel cable's lower end is tied to an anchor-type mechanism that is embedded into the walls of the drilling to prevent it from being uplifted. Said steel cable's top end is tied to a hydraulic pulling mechanism, exerting a continuous uplifting force. The pulling force applied to the steel cable by means of the hydraulic mechanism and the reaction to such pulling from the fixed anchor at the other end of it generate the desired compression in the construction project.

Detailed description of the invention
There follows a detailed description of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein:
Figure 1 is a three dimensional representation of the present invention's device of a hydraulic tie rod for construction projects.
Figure 2 is a three dimensional representation of a building framework with hydraulic tie rods for construction projects fitted to the framework's vertical support points and also in the drillings beneath them.
Figure 3 shows the forces which are calculated in the static design of construction structures and it also provides an illustration with a candle.
Figure 4 shows the pathogenesis of a building framework column as well as an analysis of the forces acting destructively on the aggregates.
Figure 5 shows a building framework column with its base as well as the proposed structure in order to avoid said pathogenesis problems in case of an earthquake.
Figure 6 shows the proposed holding hoop for the steel cable-passage pipes and the steel-passage pipes inside the columns.
Figure 7 shows a house built without framework as well as the locations for installing the hydraulic tie rods.
Figure 8 shows a suitably configured steel framework for encasing old structures made of timber or other materials and the retrofitting of hydraulic tie rods on them.
Figure 9 shows a water dam as well as the method of installing hydraulic tie rods on it.
Figure 10 shows sections of a floating underwater road as well as the usefulness of fitting hydraulic tie rods to it.

With reference to Figure 1, the hydraulic tie rod (108) comprises two main components, namely, the pressure chamber (1) and the anchor (17), which are connected by a steel cable (2). The pressure chamber (1) comprises an integrated pressure chamber sleeve (8). Inside said sleeve, there is a pressure chamber piston (7) which slides up and down, just like a car engine piston, and is leak-tight to prevent the escape of pressure chamber air (or other fluid) into the internal ring of the pressure chamber sleeve (8). On the inside of said pressure chamber (1), in the centre of it, there is a welded pressure-tight steel cable carrying pipe (11); said steel cable (2) travels through said pipe while the inner part of the hole opening (109) of the pressure chamber piston (7) slides snugly on the external surface of said pipe. A piston terminal ring (6) is integrally mounted (as if one body) on the pressure chamber piston (7) and has two piston safety wire brackets (5) holding in their holes the safety wires (3), said wire brackets being held at the other end by sleeve safety wire brackets (4). Said piston terminal ring has a hole opening (109) through which said steel cable (2) comes out and is then fastened on the piston terminal ring (6) by a cable-fastening cone-shaped wedge (14). Said pressure chamber (1) has a pressure safety valve (9) that opens to release excess pressure from pressure chamber (1). It has also a hole opening with internal threading (10) for the supply of air (or other fluid) through a solenoid connection to the central automated pressure air (or other fluid) replenishment system. It follows, of course, that pressure chamber (1) is hollow internally to be filled with pressure air (or other fluid). The chamber piston (7) is solid and has an internal hole opening (109) in its centre. The steel cable (2) fastened to the terminal ring of the pressure chamber piston (7) once it passes through: (a) the opening of the steel cable receiving pipe (11) in the pressure chamber (7), (b) the steel cable passage pipe (Figure 2 66)), (c) the opening of the metal resistance pipe (Figure 2 (15)) and (d) the anchor sleeve (25), terminates and is fixed with cast metal inside the anchorage piston (26) which becomes a solid unit with the steel cable (2), which bears a knot (Figure 1 (22)) at the lower end of it for improved anchorage inside the anchorage piston (26). The anchorage piston (26) slides up and down inside the inner opening of the anchor sleeve (25). The anchorage piston (26) has integrally mounted on it an anchorage piston terminal ring (21). The anchor sleeve (25) too has mounted on it an anchor sleeve terminal ring (20) and an anchor threading (16) for screwing the metal resistance pipe (15) on to it via a corresponding threading similar to that of said anchor sleeve. Moreover, the anchorage piston (26) has another ring on it called piston rod bearing ring (24), having built-in hoops with holes for connecting it to the rods (27) through connecting ring rod rotary pins (28). The other end of the rod is connected to side blades (18), which also have hoops with holes connected to the anchor rods (27) through connecting side blade rod rotary pins (29). The anchor sleeve, too, has a sleeve rod ring (23), which has hoops with holes so that it can be connected through rods (27) and connecting rotary pins (28) to the side blades (18) embossed with indentations (19) for better anchorage into the drilling walls (31). A building framework can be seen in figure 2 with a lift and integrated hydraulic tie rods for construction projects in operation.

In another preferred embodiment, when the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects is to be used in particularly unstable ground sites, it may be provided with anchors bearing four cross-shaped blades (at 90° to each other) with the corresponding number of rods and connecting rotary pins.

We will now consider the framework construction sequence and the manner in which installation and operation of the hydraulic tie rods is carried out. Once the ground onto which the building structure will rest has been prepared, holes are dug into the ground at the points where the individual bases (36) will be placed. Drilling (31) is carried out inside the holes. The steel cable (2) is integrated onto anchor (17). One end of the steel cable (2) is passed into the hole opening of the metal resistance pipe (15) and said metal pipe (15) is threaded onto anchor (17) via anchor threading (16). Once joined into one body, the bottom part of the anchor (17), together with the resistance pipe (15), is lowered first into the drilling (31). On the top side of said resistance pipe (15) there is mounted a flat steel base to regulate its lowering to the desired level and provide better resistance and propping of the individual base (36) on the metal resistance pipe (15). Then, the steel cable (2) projecting from the metal base of said resistance pipe (15) is progressively fed into the pieces comprising the steel cable carrying pipe (66) while progressively adding more pieces until rooftop slab (33) is reached. When concrete laying of the building framework has been completed, the projecting steel cable (2) is placed in the bottom side of the pressure chamber (1) and passed through the hole opening of the steel cable carrying pipe (11) pushing the steel cable (2) until it goes through the hole opening (109) of the pressure chamber piston terminal ring (7). Once the steel cable (2) emerges from the top of the hole (109), it is guided through the opening of a cone-shaped cable anchoring wedge (14) and the base of pressure chamber (1) is placed over the steel cable carrying pipe (66), and then the steel cable (2) is attached on the pressure chamber piston (7) and pulled up using standard traction equipment. As the steel cable is pulled by the traction equipment the following occur: an upward pull is exerted at the distant end of the steel cable (2) mounted on the anchorage piston (26), the metal resistance pipe is held in place by the concrete foundation of column (36) as does the anchor sleeve (25) which is fastened to the resistance pipe (15) by means of the anchor threading (16) and as a result of the pulling action the anchorage piston (26) sinks into the hole opening of the anchor sleeve (25). During this movement of the anchorage piston (26), the piston rod bearing ring (24) is held in place by the anchorage piston terminal ring (21) and is lifted forcing the anchor rods (27), through the connecting rotary pins, to move vertically upwards; however, piston rods (27) are prevented from being lifted upwards because of the resistance offered by other sleeve rods (27) operating via the same mechanism in a reverse and opposite fashion providing resistance to the action of the piston rods and thus the joint connecting and rotary pin of the side blade rod (29) pushes the support of the side blades (18) towards the walls of the drilling (31) and as a consequence the side blades (18) push on the walls of the drilling (31), which, in turn, retreat slightly thus anchoring the entire system. To remove the traction equipment upon completion of the traction operation, the cone-shaped anchor wedge (14) is

seismic Feb 19, 2010 9:54 PM

placed in the hole opening (109) of the piston terminal ring (6) and hammered down in order to get the steel cable (2) anchored. Then, once the commercial traction equipment is removed, the pressure chamber is set to the desired pressure level by connecting the internally threaded inlet (10) through a piping system to an automated air (or other fluid) pressure system, "electrical pump with controlled pressure chamber". This pressure (90) within the pressure chamber (1) is exerted in all directions i.e. forces the pressure chamber downwards and the pressure piston (7) upwards; however, because the pressure piston (7) is tied to the steel cable (2) through the cone-shaped wedge (14) it cannot rise but exerts a pulling force (42) on the steel cable (2) while the base of the pressure chamber (1) exerts compressive force (45) on the slab originating from the reaction created by the pressure (90) of the piston bottom (12) towards the bottom of the pressure chamber (1). Moreover, to absorb the vibrations a rubber insert (13) is placed between the pressure chamber (1) and the top slab (33). This compressive force of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects is different from the compression generated by the weight of the floors. In a multi-storey building the weight of each floor is the same when all floors are of the same dimensions and is accumulated generating the compressive force. However, the oscillating motion of each floor during an earthquake is different, the higher the floor and the longer the duration of the earthquake is, the larger the amplitude of the oscillation, increasing gradually and causing the first, the middle and the top slabs to oscillate deforming their vertical axis into an S shape changing the relationship of the horizontal and the vertical axis of the building by 90° leading eventually to the collapse of the building.

In contrast, the compression generated artificially by the tie rod for construction projects (108) is an active compressive force without the oscillations that the slabs are subjected to and which are generated as a result of the inertia of the slabs to the lateral forces caused by an earthquake. This artificial compressive force exerted by the tie rod prevents buckling of the columns, unless the steel cable breaks, thus, giving us the possibility to utilise its full strength at 100%. In case the drilling walls (31) collapse due to ground fluidization on account of an earthquake, the steel cable (2) will remain under tension, while the anchor diameter (17) on the horizontal plane will increase providing compaction of the soil on the drilling walls (31). This is because of the continuous pressure the steel cable (2) is being subjected to by the air (or other fluid) pressure exerted on the pressure chamber piston (7) and the pressure chamber (1) forcing the anchor (17) to open and automatically improve the soil on the drilling walls (31). In the event of the soil subsiding under the base (36), the building framework will not tilt because its weight is "taken up" by the metal resistance pipe (15) and then transferred to the side walls of the drilling (31) through the upper rods (27) of the anchor (17) which are pyramidal in shape, and are linked to the lower rods (27), which are pulled by the rising motion of the steel cable (2), through connecting rotary pins (29), (28). Moreover, this mechanism generates only compression (45) and tension (42) forces on the concrete column and prevents the generation of shear forces (46), which the concrete cannot withstand (see example of Figure 4). Moreover, anti-vibration rubber inserts (Figure 2, (35)) are placed in order to absorb the vibrations generated by the vertical earthquake forces. These rubber inserts (35) are placed between the individual bases (36) and the continuous base (37) which is constructed in order to prevent ramming the trusses and the slab (33) caused by the up-down movement of the individual bases during the waveform motion of the ground generated by the earthquake. In this way, the continuous base (37) is converted into a rigid boat keel lifting the columns on the same horizontal axis of the continuous base (37), in other words, the horizontal axis of the continuous base does not change shape during the earthquake and there is no ramming by the columns. In conclusion, the greater the width of the columns the more effective the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects is.

In another especially preferred embodiment of the present invention, based on the above conclusion and on our attempt to achieve the greatest possible structural rigidity, four hydraulic tie rods (108) are placed at the four corners of a lift shaft (Figure 2, (32)) with sizable external side dimensions, as well as a separate individual base so that the resulting unit will be very rigid. Care is taken not to leave a joint-spacing (38) between the slab (33) and the lift (32) and between the continuous base (37) and the individual base of the lift (32). This combined structure exhibits the following behaviour during an earthquake: the rest of the framework is oscillating around the lift shaft touching on it at various points along the gap (38) just before the framework exceeds its fracture point and thus before it is subjected to fracture and collapse it touches on a rigid structure (lift shaft) or a cross-shaped rigid column and thus the vertical axis of the framework does not exceed its allowed fracture point and does not assume an S shape as a result of the inertia of the slabs mentioned above.

In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects may be used with reinforcement in the columns, particularly with pre-stressing which is usually applied to the trusses. This is a very innovative way of using the hydraulic tie rod of the present invention adding improved strength mainly to large structures wherein simply covering the external columns of the building structure may not be sufficient to give the structure full structural rigidity and protection. In order to achieve this and have a vertical pre-stressing of the steel, it must not be anchored within the concrete and for that reason the steel is guided (Figure 6, (44)) through pipes (65) which are fixed with a pipe holding hoop (64) comprising the central pipe (110) fastening, the steel passage pipes (72) fastening, and the pipe holding bars (73) bearing hole openings to allow the concrete to pass through (74). Pipes (65) and (66) are fastened into said fastening hole openings (72) and (110) once the steel (44) and the steel cable (2) have passed through the pipe and fastening hole openings. The same procedure is followed in fastening the remaining pipes one on top of the other. Figure 5 presents an illustration of a frame column (34) with an individual concrete base (36). It shows the method of installing hoops (64), tie rod-cable passage pipe (66), steel passage pipes (65), and metal plates (62) as well as the method of threading with the base tightening screw (70) and the tightening screw (69) for joining and extending the steel, it also shows steel cable (2) and steel reinforcement (44). There follows a description for the placement and the construction of column (34). Once the drilling (31) has been carried out, the anchor (17) is screwed on the metal resistance pipe (15) provided the steel cable (2) has been guided through its hole opening. The anchor is lowered inside the drilling (31) and then the metal base plate (62) is placed provided the steel cable (2) has been guided first through its central hole opening. Then we fasten all steel carrying pipes (65), as well as the main steel cable carrying pipe of the tie rod (66), to the metal plate (63) hole openings, provided the steel reinforcement (44) and the tie rod steel cable (2) have passed first through their hole (67) and then screwing steel (44) using tightening screws (70) on the bottom part of the metal plate (62) to prevent it from rising upwards. These pipes are held inside a partially finished formwork of the column by means of hoops (64) and when the pipes (65) and the steel (44) reach beyond the level of the slab, the column formwork is completed and the concrete is poured into the column formwork (34). When the concrete sets the pipes projecting from the slab are cut and metal plate (62) is placed on the projecting steel (44) with threading (68) taking care that the steel (44) and steel cable (2) get through the hole openings of the plate (63). The tightening and steel joining/extending screw (69) is then screwed to the steel (44) threading (68) on its internal half threading (71), while the extension of the other steel is screwed on the other half internal threading of screw (69). Tensional forces on steel (44) and compressive forces on column (34) are generated during the fastening of the tightening screw (69) on the metal plate (62). This way, the required additional and desirable result of column compression is obtained, thus preventing the generation of shearing forces when the classical reinforcement method is utilized, i.e. pre-stressed concrete is produced in the framework column (34) by means of both the steel and the steel cable of the tie rod.

Based on the foregoing description, the advantages of using the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects can be listed as follows:
1) The structure's centre of gravity is shifted and is now located into the ground, making the construction structurally rigid. This is achieved by means of tightening the structure to the ground thereby forcing it to act as an integral

seismic Feb 19, 2010 9:55 PM

body with the ground and not in isolation in which case it becomes vulnerable to lateral, destructive for the columns forces.
2) Permanent active compressive forces are developed, remaining constant even during an earthquake, exceeding the conventional tensional and shearing forces developing and prevailing during an earthquake following the current methods of concrete reinforcement in the columns, compressive forces which can be taken up by concrete to 100%.
3) Savings in terms of steel and concrete materials used, deriving from the fact that either the steel or the steel cable can be 100% effective to tensional forces considering that the hydraulic tie rod (108) does not offset the working tensional traction of steel or steel cable (2), which, in the case of passive steel and concrete reinforcement, is offset due to the failure of concrete to withstand the shearing forces developed between concrete (43) and the embossed part of steel (44).
4) The structure is prevented from being shifted because it is tied to the ground.
5) Structure sliding as a result of soil fluidization is eliminated. This is because of the shape of the anchor (17) and the "triangular pyramidal" bar arrangement pattern (27), combined with the continuous active compressive force exerted by the hydraulic tie rod and the resistance pipe (15).
6) The destructive forces applied on the structure during an earthquake are effectively checked by installing on the framework of Figure 2 effective systems for distributing the forces evenly, such as individual bases (36), continuous base (37), vibration reducing rubber inserts (35) and a single elevator (32) equipped with four hydraulic tie rods for construction projects.
7) The strength of the trusses at their point of support on the columns is increased due to the fact that at the point of support concrete is subjected to compressive forces and its resistance to shear forces generated between the concrete and the horizontal reinforcement of the trusses during an earthquake is increased.

The hydraulic tie rod for construction projects of the present invention can be used in various similar applications in the construction industry such as:
(a) Houses built employing methods not utilizing a concrete framework (Figure 7, (75)) wherein the strength of the brickwork (77) to the lateral forces generated during an earthquake is increased by inserting mortar joints, this increase in strength being due to the compressive forces (Figure 3, (45)) developed by means of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects (108). In the case of houses built employing methods not utilizing a concrete framework, the hydraulic ties rods may be installed at the corners of the building and at intervals, around the structure perimeter, over the external brickwork, passing through the gap between the double brickwork, inside carrying pipes (66) terminating vertically into the drillings (31). The positioning of tie rod pressure chambers (1) on the top slab can be seen in Figure 7. Moreover, in such building structures a reinforced concrete bind-beam (76) and a continuous foundation (37) are constructed for better protection. In such building structures (75), equipped with hydraulic tie rods (108), built employing methods not utilizing a concrete framework, the cohesion, the strength and the adhesive ability of the joints (111) are greatly improved rendering these structures much more resistant to the lateral forces exerted during an earthquake, forces that ordinary brickwork cannot withstand.
(b) Old houses, timber houses and water dams in artificial lakes (Figure 9), achieving additionally better ground water-tightness through compaction and improved resistance to lake-water pressure. In these cases, the hydraulic tie rods for construction projects may be used either during the construction stage when included in the design or may be retrofitted to reinforce old structures against earthquakes, hurricanes and cyclones. As shown in Figure 8, reinforced steel corner pipes (81) are used, which are attached, using screws and wall plugs, on the wall or corner columns at the hole locations (82) on the external building corners (88) and then two pulling actions are applied. The first pulling action is carried out by tie rod (108) comprising a pressure chamber (1), steel cable (2), anchor (17), which is installed in the same fashion as in drilling (31). The second pulling action is horizontal and it is applied by two steel cables (84), one end thereof fixed on a steel ball (85) inserted into a modulated cross-section of the same shape (86) located onto the corner pipe (81) while the other end is fastened to a two-way traction screw (83); upon turning of said two-way traction screw (83) a horizontal traction is generated helping to unite the corner pipes (81) by applying a horizontal compression on the walls forcing them to become one with the structure (88). The joining of roof (88) with the corner pipes (81) is achieved by means of hole openings for the passage of steel cable (80), which are on the roof (90) steel framework, and are tightened together with the pressure chambers (1) through traction on steel cable (2).
(c) Floating underwater roads. In the prior art, bridges were constructed in order to get across from one coast to another, however, these are very costly as they require the construction of columns underwater and if the depth to which foundations will be laid is great, it is impossible to construct. Another way is by constructing underwater tunnels. This, too, is very costly due to boring at great depths. We therefore propose, as an alternative solution, the construction of an underwater floating road (Figure 10 (92)) operating like a submarine. This construction method has a number of advantages compared to the existing construction methods. First of all, it is cheap because it is built onshore; secondly, sea accidents will be avoided given that it is an underwater structure not posing any problems to navigation; thirdly, it may be constructed regardless of the sea bed depth and, fourthly, it is not affected by winds or earthquakes. Construction is carried out as follows: floating underwater roads are constructed onshore and then transported to the point of setting by floating cranes and barges and left on the sea surface (105) where they float by virtue of their sealed compartments, just like in submarines, i.e. sealed road surface (94) and sealed external chambers (95). When water inflow valve (100) is turned on, sea water flows into the sealed compartments and the floating underwater roads start sinking since their own weight is equated to that of the sea. When submerged to 20 m, the air inflow valve (102) and the water outflow valve (101) are turned on closing at the same time the water inflow valve (100). The air inflow valve (102) and the water outflow valve (101) are linked to the sea surface by means of two rubber pipes that terminate on a floating craft. Water is pumped out through valve (101) using a pump that is located at the other end of the rubber pipe, on the floating craft, while valve (102) supplies the air needed to maintain atmospheric pressure in the sealed chamber and enable the pumping system operation. Through the valve system, the floating underwater road can be raised or lowered balancing finally to the particular desired depth and then it is anchored using the hydraulic tie rod system (108) in shallow drillings (31) previously bored on the sea bed (106) by means of a small submarine. The procedure is repeated with the rest of the sections of the floating underwater road, joining them with bolts and nuts through the fastening holes on their frames. To improve the road surface water-tightness (93), a sealing rubber insert (97) is inserted between the frames of each section of the floating underwater road. When the joining and sealing procedure of all sections (92) of the floating underwater road is completed, all water is removed from the sealed compartments through valves (102) and (101) and the water pump located on the sea surface on a floating craft and then water is pumped away from the road surface (93). The lifting force generated on the floating underwater roads as a result of pumping out the water from the road surface (93) and the sealed compartments is the service load of the road (93). This lifting force of the floating underwater road towards sea surface (105) is counterbalanced by hydraulic tie rods (108) comprising pressure chamber (Figure 10, (1)), steel cable (2), anchor (17), lateral anchor blades (18), pressure chamber base (104) and steel cable guide (96). Still, inside the sealed compartments there is an extension of the sealed compartment water outflow pipe (107), which is an extension of the surface rubber tube and valve (101). The road is ready for use once the air equipment is installed and the road pavement is laid. Moreover, in order to protect the floating underwater road from sea currents, inclined side tie rods are installed at intervals on both sides of the floating underwater road. Said side ties rods are mounted on specially configured side mountings (103) on the floating underwater road.

All the aforementioned application examples for the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects of the present invention as well as any additional applications pertaining to the use of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects of the present invention that may occur to those skilled in the art form part of the present invention and are deemed to be within the scope of protection thereof as set forth in the claims appended hereto.

seismic Feb 26, 2010 4:09 PM

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Hydraulic Tension Tie Summary
Hydraulic Tension Tie Summary

A Greek engineer developed Hydralic Tension Tie for construction work, which can be used to provide protection against the origination and development of failings in building structures, caused by earthquake and wind forces, and also to anchor any large structures, such as damns, houses, wind generators, bridges etc, into the ground (like a huge screw). This is achieved by a continuous prestressing (pulling) of both the structure towards the ground and of the ground towards the structure, making them into one body. The prestressing force is applied by means of a mechanical hydraulic tension tie for construction work.
The inventor is seeking

a) funding to register an international patent

b) a manufacturer for the invention

c) further tests

Funding for the above or any of those three.

Description of the offer or R&D result
It comprises of a hydraulic tension tie for construction work (Figure 1) and an effective anti-vibration system to distribute evenly damage-causing earthquake and wind forces. To understand the invention, just visualise how earthquake forces are being transmitted in a wavelike fashion and also how an earthquake sways a structure left and right and knocks it up and down, twisting the horizontal or vertical axis of the structure. So said engineer developed a continuous double base (Figure 2, (36)(37)) for the building frame, whose dimensions are equal to the basement area, with rubber in between said base (35) to prevent the wavy motion of the ground, caused by the earthquake, from turning each single base (36) (base for each column) into a column-fracturing ram. Understandably, column reinforcement is joined only to the upper continuous base, preferably by means of additional reinforcement and prestressing. Thus, the horizontal axis of the structure is kept rigid.
To prevent the vertical axis from being twisted by an earthquake as it moves the structure either left or right, said engineer developed a hydraulic tension tie for construction work (Figure 1), acting like a screw, and tied said tension tie (32) with the ground, preferably in the centre of the building frame and making it rigid through prestressing. Care is taken to leave a gap (38) between the slab and the tension tie and also between the continuous base (37) and the single base of the tension tie. This combined structure exhibits the following behaviour during an earthquake: the rest of the framework (34) sways around the tension tie well (32) touching on it at various points along the gap (38), which is lined with anti-vibration rubbers, just before the frame exceeds its fracture point; and so before breaking and collapsing, it touches on a rigid structure (tension tie); thus, besides preventing the vertical axis of the frame from exceeding its fracture point, it does not allow it to take an "S" shape due to the inactivity of the plates to the lateral forces generated during an earthquake.
Said hydraulic tension tie consists of a steel cable (Figure 2, (2)), passing freely through the four corners of a tension tie (figure 2, (17)(1)). Its lower end is tied by means of an anchor mechanism (figure 2, (17)) that is driven into the walls of a drill hole (22), preventing it from being uplifted. The steel cable's top end is tied to a hydraulic mechanism at the top of the tension tie, on all four corners of it. The pulling force applied to steel cable (2) by the hydraulic tension tie and the resistance to such pulling from the fixed anchor at the other end create the desired compression in tension tie. In structures with a small surface area, tension ties are placed on every frame column (figure 2, (34)) since the wavelike motion of the ground generated by an earthquake does not affect small structures; this because it moves up and down within the seismic wave range.

Innovative aspects
This is the first time that an anti-seismic patent connects the ground to the structure at appropriate points, independently (using an empty space, gap) of the rest of the structure, to develop flexible and rigid areas and by means of an anti-vibration slab to distribute evenly damage-causing earthquake and wind forces. There are areas where what's required is only rigidity and clamping/anchoring of structures such as dams, pylons, bridges, windmills, timber structures vulnerable to cyclones, and these requirements are satisfied by the tension tie for building structures.

This tension tie may be installed on existing structures as well as in structures under construction. It is as if we have just discovered a screw and are trying to work out how it can be used. The tension tie does exactly what a tree does: it has roots into the ground and flexible branches. On two sides of anti-seismic slabs, scaffolds are screwed together with the base to protect the tested structure from collapsing by the latter touching on them. The patent of this tension tie does just that, the only difference being that the (tension tie) scaffolding is screwed at the centre of the tested structure, providing a corresponding gap over and inside the ground.

Main advantages
a) During earthquakes and high winds, it keeps the horizontal and vertical axes of building structures in a straight line to prevent them from breaking and collapsing.

b) It increases the strength of concrete to tensile forces generated by an earthquake.

c) The steel cable uses % of its tensile strength, whereas in the normal, inactive reinforcement, the tensile ability of steel is cancelled out due to the inability of concrete to hold it and resist to the pulling force generated during an earthquake at its vertical elements.

d)It protects houses from hurricanes and cyclones

e) It provides a way of anchoring large structures into the ground (for various reasons) horizontally, vertically and under an angle.

f) If the walls of the drill hole collapse (31) as a result of liquefied ground after an earthquake, the steel cable (2) will remain tensed; on the contrary the anchor diameter (17) on the horizontal plane will increase and compact the soil on the walls of the drill hole (31). This happens because of the continuous pressure the steel cable (2) is being subjected to by the air (or other fluid) pressure exerted on the pressure chamber piston (7) and the pressure chamber (1) forcing the anchor (17) to open and automatically improve the soil on the walls of the drill hole (31). In the event of the soil subsiding under the foundation (36), the building frame will not buckle because its weight is "transferred" to the metal weight resistance pipe (15) and then transferred to the side walls of the drill hole (31) through the upper rods (27) of the anchor (17) which are having a pyramidal shape, and are linked to the lower rods (27), which are pulled by the uplifting of the steel cable (2) through connecting rotary pins (29), (28).

seismic Feb 28, 2010 7:50 AM

Anti-seismic system placed in a shaft of a load-bearing structure
 
Anti-seismic system placed in a shaft of a load-bearing structure http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZcHBKRI
The main object of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects of our invention along with its application method in the construction field for structural projects is to minimise the problems associated with the safety of structural projects such as buildings in the case of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, tornados and very powerful winds in general. According to the present invention, this can be achieved by a continuous pre-stressing (pulling) of both the roof of a large, geometrical part of the building structure which independent of the load-bearing structure towards the ground and of the ground towards the structure, making these two parts one body like a sandwich.

This pre-stressing force is applied by the mechanism of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects, said mechanism mainly consisting of a steel cable penetrating free in the centre the vertical support elements of the structure, as well as the drilling length, beneath them. Said steel cable's lower end is tied to an anchor-type mechanism that is embedded into the banks (walls) of the drilling to prevent it from being uplifted. This embedding is attained due to the drilling hole being somewhat smaller than the exterior diameter of the completely opened anchor mechanism. Said steel cable's top end is also tied to a hydraulic pulling mechanism exerting a continuous uplifting force. This pulling mechanism comprises a piston, said piston reciprocating within a piston sleeve, connected to a pressure chamber beneath it. This pulling force, exerted on the top-end of the steel cable, by the hydraulic mechanism due to the hydraulic pressure originating from the rise of the chamber towards the piston, and the reaction in this pulling force originating from the embedded anchor at its other end generate the desirable compression in the construction project which in turn is tied to the ground and thus rendered resistant to the horizontal forces of an earthquake.

Utility analysis of the anti-seismic system titled: “Hydraulic Tie Rod for Construction Projects”.

Innovative step of the invention:
The forces of an earthquake (horizontal and vertical) start being transported from the bottom (base) towards the top (load-bearing structure). The horizontal and vertical (tectonic) transfer of the earthquake forces to the load-bearing structure is executed necessarily by the ground floor columns via the bases, and by means of the nodes, to the first floor and from then on from the first to the second, and so on.
.,
However the following paradox emerges:
The first (bottom), intermediate and top plates, when oscillating each have different amplitudes, and different directions. This is due to the inertia of each one of the multiple plates, as well as the additive elasticity of the columns of each floor, in different time-space, from the bottom to the top.

This delayed transfer of the acceleration forces results in the multiple plates moving in different lateral directions, (due to the inertia exhibited by each individual plate, in different time-space). Thus, additional torques are created, as well as shearing stresses form different directions in the column nodes, said columns due to their elasticity tending to deform along the vertical axis of the structure framework, in the form of an S.

CONCLUSION
For the above reasons, it is imperative to stop this irregular vertical axial development of additional torques and shearing stresses, originating from the horizontal forces developing on the plates which in most cases are in phase difference between them depending on the floor (height). This irregular development therefore creates additional problems in the column nodes.

The above problems to be resolved, i.e. of the shearing stresses and the torques generated in the nodes due to the horizontal (lateral) acceleration of an earthquake, and of the irregular displacement of the vertical axis of the load-bearing structure, are much accentuated in the nodes of the ground floor columns.

This is because of an additional problem occurring only in the nodes of the base with the columns. These nodes are not at all elastic so as to be able to transfer smoothly the violent shearing forces imposed on them by the base embedded to the ground.

The result is that these first load-transfer nodes developing by the dynamics of an earthquake, additionally bearing increased compressive components, and in combination with the acceleration of the earthquake, are the first to fail in the event of an earthquake. For these reasons, said nodes are placed under seismic insulation by creating a double “one-piece” base, and placing elastic supports in-between.

Another major problem to be solved is the great tendency of the load-bearing structure sides to rise alternately, said tendency originating from the increase in the structure oscillation. This tendency of the load-bearing structure to rise induces additional torque on all the nodes, forcing them to develop the tendency to change their existing, until now, angle in order to receive the additional bending loads of the load-bearing structure.

The proposed solution in order to address the above reported problems induced on the load-bearing structure by the earthquake is summarised in the following three points:
1) Create the conditions for controlled axial oscillation of the load-bearing structure.
2) Help the columns in transferring the horizontal forces of the earthquake, to the plates, not only from the bottom to the top in different time-spaces (phase difference from plate to plate depending on the height of placement), as occurs in the current conventional structures, but also laterally in relation to the vertical axis to all the plates simultaneously from a pre-stressed rigid structure (e.g. shaft).
3) Strengthen the nodes dimensionally along with additional reinforcement (or pre-stressing) in order to resist shearing.

The above is achieved by placing right at the centre of the load-bearing structure, architecturally exploitable in an effort to lower the cost, pre-stressed with the ground but independent from the load-bearing structure, rigid shaft, or dimensionally large cross-shaped column, or even a big room. The essential condition for the above rigid geometrical forms is for them to have axial vertical continuity, along the whole height of the building, and to be constructed entirely from reinforced pre-stressed with the ground concrete.

This pre-stressing applied by the hydraulic tie rod on the shaft and on the ground, is mainly imposed in order for these two parts to become one body, such that at the horizontal acceleration of the earthquake, the ground, the base, and the loft of the shaft are found in the same acceleration phase (in the same time-space as one body in the three dimensions).

The larger the geometric dimensions of the base (cross-section area), relative to the height, the larger is the resistance in the foot block, as well as in the emerging shearing.

An increase in the pre-stressing placed on the shaft, means a corresponding increase in its resistance to shearing, an increase in the compaction of the drilling banks, and consequently a better embedding of the anchor mechanism.

In order to achieve the independence of the rigid shaft from the load-bearing structure, we leave a gap between them. This gap is useful for the following reasons:
a) earthquake dynamics is not transferred from the shaft to the load-bearing structure,
b) the load-bearing structure remains independent in the seismic insulation offered to it by the double “one-piece” base-plate away from the oscillating shaft,
c) the load-bearing structure exhausts the mechanical resistance properties of the existing reinforcement, (so that it does not transfer large impact forces to the shaft), and just before it breaks, there occurs damping and retaining of the load-bearing structure on hydraulic systems placed in the lift gap, (rubber, or dampers),
d) to prevent the load-bearing structure from leaning on the lift shaft and transferring the additional compressive forces of its weight, thereby making the application of further pre-stressing forces on the shaft possible, thus rendering it more rigid.
e) to help the columns in transferring the earthquake forces, not only vertically, but also laterally in same time-space, by means of the pre-stressed rigid shaft and the dampers.

All this elasticity of the vertical axis of the load-bearing structure may be put under control in such a fashion as to achieve the smooth transfer of its vertical axis torques to the shaft.

When it is intended for the upper floors to oscillate more than the lower ones, the gap on the upper floors is made larger, setting a lower pressure on their hydraulics, in relation to the lower floors. Operating in such a manner, and in order to keep the bending action of the vertical axis under control to avoid the destructive transfer of torque towards the lower floors, the transfer of torque is computed statically during the plate impact from each and every floor onto the shaft and following that the proper gap between each floor plate and the rigid structure is computed and the proper hydraulic pressure is applied on the dampers.

In order to further strengthen the rigidity of the rigid structure (shaft), to decrease the oscillation amplitude, to prevent the overthrow, and to increase the shaft resistance to the shearing stress that is generated by the lateral impact of the plates due to their inertia, it is necessary to render the rigid structure “one-body” with the ground.

This can be achieved by means of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects mechanism, applying pre-stressing between the loft (top floor) and the ground, making these two parts “one-body”.

CONCLUSION
It is wrong to let the columns transfer all alone the horizontal forces of an earthquake from the bottom to the top in the load-bearing structure, as is currently the case in the majority of the building construction methods.

The horizontal forces of an earthquake are not transferred effortlessly from the columns to the structure framework, this being due to the existence of other forces acting contrary to the direction of the earthquake horizontal forces, said forces originating from the inertia of the plates and resulting in the plates not responding readily to the direction of the earthquake horizontal forces. This opposition of forces on the horizontal axis of the building structure, creates shearing stresses, as well as non-uniform bending in the shape of an S (for the reasons reported above) deforming the vertical axis of the structure, with the known results.

It is at this point that the invention provides for the columns to transfer the earthquake forces uniformly and smoothly, not only vertically towards the top, but also horizontally to the floor plates, by means of the hydraulic tie rod, the pre-stressed shaft, and the hydraulic dampers placed in the gap.

Deductively in this way, the framework vertical axis maintains its initial form, not deforming into an S shape, due to the uniform movement of the mass of the multiple plates in the same time-space imposed on them by the pre-stressed shaft, relieving and helping this way the columns to transfer the destructive earthquake forces to the plates. That is to say, the invention creates controlled flexibility on the load-bearing structure vertical axis, helps the columns transfer laterally the earthquake forces to the plates, at the same time achieving the seismic insulation of the load-bearing structure horizontal axis (with double “one-piece” base-plates carrying elastic inserts between them). Moreover it also stops the tendency of the building to rise unilaterally, said tendency originating from the increase of the oscillation co-ordination, which oscillation co-ordination depends on the height of the building, the time duration of the earthquake as well as the wavelength of the earthquake and the amplitude of its oscillation.

Ground fluidization (subsidence) as well as the cracks, caused by an earthquake, are a major problem, which, however, in part has been resolved by the invention.

Stopping the video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZcHBKRI at the point ( 55 sec. ) showing under the ground surface, a pipe can be observed starting from the anchor and reaching up to the bottom part of the base.

This is called resistance pipe, and is useful for the following reasons:
1) it constitutes the passage of the steel cable applying the pre-stressing,
2) should the ground recede under the base, then this resistance pipe undertakes the weight of the base and transfers it to the banks (side-walls) of the drilling (this is a very important reason),
3) should the banks of the drilling recede (due to oscillations), the steel cable does not sag because the hydraulic pressure (under the piston in the upper part of the system) causes the tightening of the steel cable which in turn generates resistance on the bottom anchor piston the movement of which activates the anchor pins to move towards the solid ground around them restoring the desirable embedding in the banks (side-walls) of the drilling.


This video, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C2Z1zmrJhsc towards the end, in the 52nd minute, presents an earthquake simulation, and shows very distinctly that the building structure is not tied (embedded) to the ground contrary to what was common belief to date. Clearly the object of this invention is to counterbalance (and not only that) these uplifting forces generated by the oscillation of the building.



The anti-seismic system installed inside the shaft of a load-bearing structure: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZcHBKRI
Invention webpage: http://www.antiseismic-systems.com/index.php?lang=el

seismic Mar 10, 2010 8:45 PM

New Video Of Invention
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZcHBKRI :cheers:

I need a partner for the invention in America

Lecom Mar 18, 2010 11:58 PM

For some reason, I keep reading the thread title as "My anti semitic systems"

seismic Mar 19, 2010 1:58 PM

Quote:

Originally Posted by Lecom (Post 4753293)
For some reason, I keep reading the thread title as "My anti semitic systems"

No the thread is ''My anti baby pills :jester:

Nat Apr 15, 2010 7:38 PM

This sounds like a technique we have been using for decades to improve the seismic resistance of concrete dams, Post-tensioned steel anchors are standard practice in this application and have been for decades.

seismic Apr 16, 2010 10:43 PM

Innovative aspects
This is the first time that an anti-seismic patent connects the ground to the structure at appropriate points, independently (using an empty space, gap) of the rest of the structure, to develop flexible and rigid areas and by means of an anti-vibration slab to distribute evenly damage-causing earthquake and wind forces. There are areas where what's required is only rigidity and clamping/anchoring of structures such as dams, pylons, bridges, windmills, timber structures vulnerable to cyclones, and these requirements are satisfied by the tension tie for building structures.

This tension tie may be installed on existing structures as well as in structures under construction. It is as if we have just discovered a screw and are trying to work out how it can be used. The tension tie does exactly what a tree does: it has roots into the ground and flexible branches. On two sides of anti-seismic slabs, scaffolds are screwed together with the base to protect the tested structure from collapsing by the latter touching on them. The patent of this tension tie does just that, the only difference being that the (tension tie) scaffolding is screwed at the centre of the tested structure, providing a corresponding gap over and inside the ground.

Sounds like the technique you have been using, But is not like.
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=TsqTCGS

seismic Jun 21, 2010 11:23 AM

AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO BUILDING STABILITY

FIRST PLACEMENT METHOD

The patented video shows the mode of operation and method of collaboration of the antiseismic system, with bearings, which offers effective seismic isolation of the vertical and horizontal axes of a structure so that buildings repairs are avoided to the greatest extent following an earthquake:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZ...layer_embedded

http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=PqdfyhS
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=gxKi2JJ
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=PqdfPKS
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=Pqdg6cS
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=PqdgiGA

SECOND PLACEMENT METHOD

http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=PqdjPGi

There is another method of placement of the hydraulic traction mechanism in building structures.
This method does not include horizontal seismic isolation,
Or bearings
Or gaps
We simply convert sections of the internal brick-built walls of the building to walls consisting of reinforced concrete which have the same continuation on all of the floors. We insert these at carefully placed low pre-stress points between the bore hole and the hydraulic mechanism on the roof.

What we achieve with this method:

a) If the skeletal framework of a building tilts by a few degrees due to oscillation created by an earthquake, do the corners of the framework nodes have the possibility to remain at 90 degree angles?
Of course not,
Why not?
Simply stated, because the skeletal framework has a static load. During oscillation the nodes are required to take the force, but they cannot withstand this so the corners change shape, and, from right angles, some become greater and some lesser than 90 degrees. This results in slanting or bowed cracks in the corner nodes.
If the corners do withstand the static load so that they remain as right angles, logic tells us that the front and back columns will alternatively raise each other off the ground during oscillation. This, though, is impossible because the bearing element is full of nodes and static loads.

b) If the oscillation creates the above problems on the nodes, wouldn’t it be best if we can prevent this? And if so, how can we achieve this?

c) Another option might be to bind the building all around with steel cables at 45 degrees and anchor them (something which is impossible in practice).
Alternatively, we could take a portion of the structure, for example the internal walls and replace them with reinforced concrete and anchor these with the ground at appropriate points. In this way oscillation is prevented by bringing about resistance with roof, the connecting columns and the foundations of the structure.

Why do I recommend that we convert the internal brick walls to reinforced concrete and to anchor these with the ground?

For the following reasons:

a) So that the external walls are fully available for placement of doors, windows and glass panelling.

b) Because the internal walls due to their architectural nature have a cruciform shape and this dimensional form creates greater resistance to an earthquake from whichever direction it comes.

c) Because the formwork can be placed and removed easily.

d) Because dimensionally they are capable of withstanding the tendency to bend.

e) Because they have a superior dimensional plan and are capable of creating greater resistance in the chambers and columns.


In the diagrams below we illustrate the conversion of brick walls to reinforced concrete as well as the anchor points necessary to prevent oscillation of the building which strains the nodes of the structure creating slanting cracks:



http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=PqdjPGi

Placement in underwater roads:
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=Pqdi7q9

Placement in continuous brick- based structures:
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=PqdhLYS

Placement in subordinate and wooden houses for protection from both earthquake and hurricane damage:
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=PqdgP6r

Placement in a dam:


This system can also be placed in bridge pylons under the bearings.




HOW WE STOP THE OSCILLATION OF THE STRUCTURE

By applying prestressing with the hydraulic traction mechanism between the drill hole and the top of the structure via the vertical supports. This prestressing not only improves endurance against shearing, but there is an additional advantage.

During inertia tension of the bearing element, oscillation is brought about. At the prestressed vertical support, two opposing forces are created. One in the pressure chamber and the other in the vertical column and it’s foundation as a reaction to the oscillation. Within the body of the vertical support these two opposing forces created act in resistance against the earthquake.

This resistance is in addition to the resistance already present in the nodes of the structure and acts against the catastrophic power of the earthquake.

We can exert prestress on the vertical elements in two ways:
a) normal prestress or
b) controlled lesser prestress.
If the preferred elements are able to withstand the stressing we apply the normal pre-stress. If they cannot, then we apply the controlled lesser prestress.

Greater prestress is applied initially, the moment we have sunk the traction mechanism in the drill hole, prior to construction of the support structure.

And afterwards, when we have anchored the steel cable with a wedge at ground level at the foundations, we fill the drill hole with concrete prior to constructing a pile. Then we continue the construction and when it is completed we undertake a simple pre-stressing of the upper chamber and foundations.

That is, the same steel cable will receive two pre-stresses. One initially between the ground surface and the anchor, and a second one between the foundations and upper chamber, with differing tensions.

With this method we have other benefits such as:

Compression of the ground (prior to the construction of the pile), protection of the mechanism from rust and avoidance of water extraction which may be present in coastal areas.

We can control the anchorage of the structure, with as much prestress or anchoring as is needed, since the prestress underneath the foundations will have a greater intensity than the subsequent prestressing of the foundations of the structure.
SITE http://www.antiseismic-systems.com/index.php?lang=en

seismic Jul 21, 2010 10:43 PM

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HyAxO1lH5YE

seismic Oct 13, 2010 8:59 PM

http://postimage.org/Janys/
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=PqdjPGi
http://www.michanikos.gr/showthread.php?t=12040

seismic Apr 17, 2011 11:42 AM

Link http://www.antiseismic-systems.com/


HYDRAULIC TIE ROD FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

The present invention relates to a hydraulic tie rod for construction projects ensuring the protection of the construction structures against damage caused by earthquakes and hurricanes.



Anti-seismic system placed in a shaft of a load-bearing structure
The main object of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects of our invention along with its application method in the construction field for structural projects is to minimise the problems associated with the safety of structural projects such as buildings in the case of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, tornados and very powerful winds in general. According to the present invention, this can be achieved by a continuous pre-stressing (pulling) of both the roof of a large, geometrical part of the building structure which independent of the load-bearing structure towards the ground and of the ground towards the structure, making these two parts one body like a sandwich.

This pre-stressing force is applied by the mechanism of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects, said mechanism mainly consisting of a steel cable penetrating free in the centre the vertical support elements of the structure, as well as the drilling length, beneath them. Said steel cable's lower end is tied to an anchor-type mechanism http://postimage.org/image/2dmcy79yc/

that is embedded into the banks (walls) of the drilling to prevent it from being uplifted. This embedding is attained due to the drilling hole being somewhat smaller than the exterior diameter of the completely opened anchor mechanism.

Said steel cable's top end is also tied to a hydraulic pulling mechanism exerting a continuous uplifting force. http://postimage.org/image/2mlql3ag4/

This pulling mechanism comprises a piston, said piston reciprocating within a piston sleeve, connected to a pressure chamber beneath it. This pulling force, exerted on the top-end of the steel cable, by the hydraulic mechanism http://postimage.org/image/qwytuv44/

due to the hydraulic pressure originating from the rise of the chamber towards the piston, and the reaction in this pulling force originating from the embedded anchor at its other end generate the desirable compression in the construction project which in turn is tied to the ground and thus rendered resistant to the horizontal forces of an earthquake. http://postimage.org/image/14tj1webo/



THE BENEFICIAL EFECTS OF PRESTRESSING (TRACTION) BETWEEN THE BULDING STRUCTURE AND THE GROUND

a) If we have a solid concrete column anchored to the ground with the traction mechanism and fortified with steel
or
b) If we have a solid concrete column prestressed with the ground (like a sandwich)

and we apply a horizontal traction, these columns will have more resistance to the sideways traction compared to a single column which simply stands on the ground.

This, I believe, is understandable to all.

Now, if we have two solid concrete columns that are not anchored to the ground but connected to each other at the top by a beam and we then apply a sideways force, in my opinion the following will occur:

1) Firstly, the columns themselves will produce a small resistance to the sideways force
2) When this resistance in the columns bends they do not subside as before because another force acts.
3) This additional force which resists the sideways traction is in the nodes.

This strength in the nodes arises from the union of the two columns with the beam which creates structural integrity and entity.

This node strength resists the sideways force like a torque.

If we consider all the resistance forces acting against the sideways traction we see that:

Concrete columns which are anchored or prestressed with the ground will create greater resistance than those which are simply resting upon the ground.

The corners will not need to act in resistance if the anchored or prestressed columns manage on their own to bring about enough resistance to the side force which we are applying.

Here we see that the prestressed or anchored columns act in addition to the existing resistance of the structure with regards to the horizontal inertia tension when faced with the opposing acceleration of an earthquake.

If the cross-section plan of the solid concrete walls http://postimage.org/image/r1aadhj8/ is appropriately constructed and the anchoring or prestressing is also appropriate then the corners will not need to undergo any torque resistance to side forces.

In this way we eliminate torque of the corners.

The union of the walls with the ground is carried out by the traction mechanism.

There are six methods of placement
HYDRAULIC TIE ROD FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO BUILDING STABILITY

FIRST PLACEMENT METHOD

The patented video shows the mode of operation and method of collaboration of the antiseismic system, with bearings, which offers effective seismic isolation of the vertical and horizontal axes of a structure so that buildings repairs are avoided to the greatest extent following an earthquake: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZ...layer_embedded
The above is achieved by placing right at the centre of the load-bearing structure, (Or both ends of the building) architecturally exploitable in an effort to lower the cost, pre-stressed with the ground but independent from the load-bearing structure, rigid shaft, or dimensionally large cross-shaped column, or even a big room. The essential condition for the above rigid geometrical forms is for them to have axial vertical continuity, along the whole height of the building, and to be constructed entirely from reinforced pre-stressed with the ground concrete.

This pre-stressing applied by the hydraulic tie rod on the shaft and on the ground, is mainly imposed in order for these two parts to become one body, such that at the horizontal acceleration of the earthquake, the ground, the base, and the loft of the shaft are found in the same acceleration phase (in the same time-space as one body in the three dimensions).

The larger the geometric dimensions of the base (cross-section area), relative to the height, the larger is the resistance in the foot block, as well as in the emerging shearing.

An increase in the pre-stressing placed on the shaft, means a corresponding increase in its resistance to shearing, an increase in the compaction of the drilling banks, and consequently a better embedding of the anchor mechanism.



In order to achieve the independence of the rigid shaft from the load-bearing structure, we leave a gap between them. This gap is useful for the following reasons:

· earthquake dynamics is not transferred from the shaft to the load-bearing structure,

· the load-bearing structure remains independent in the seismic insulation offered to it by the double “one-piece” base-plate away from the oscillating shaft,

· the load-bearing structure exhausts the mechanical resistance properties of the existing reinforcement, (so that it does not transfer large impact forces to the shaft), and just before it breaks, there occurs damping and retaining of the load-bearing structure on hydraulic systems placed in the lift gap, (rubber, or dampers),

· to prevent the load-bearing structure from leaning on the lift shaft and transferring the additional compressive forces of its weight, thereby making the application of further pre-stressing forces on the shaft possible, thus rendering it more rigid.

· to help the columns in transferring the earthquake forces, not only vertically, but also laterally in same time-space, by means of the pre-stressed rigid shaft and the dampers.



All this elasticity of the vertical axis of the load-bearing structure may be put under control in such a fashion as to achieve the smooth transfer of its vertical axis torques to the shaft.

When it is intended for the upper floors to oscillate more than the lower ones, the gap on the upper floors is made larger, setting a lower pressure on their hydraulics, in relation to the lower floors. Operating in such a manner, and in order to keep the bending action of the vertical axis under control to avoid the destructive transfer of torque towards the lower floors, the transfer of torque is computed statically during the plate impact from each and every floor onto the shaft and following that the proper gap between each floor plate and the rigid structure is computed and the proper hydraulic pressure is applied on the dampers.

In order to further strengthen the rigidity of the rigid structure (shaft), to decrease the oscillation amplitude, to prevent the overthrow, and to increase the shaft resistance to the shearing stress that is generated by the lateral impact of the plates due to their inertia, it is necessary to render the rigid structure “one-body” with the ground.

This can be achieved by means of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects mechanism, applying pre-stressing between the loft (top floor) and the ground, making these two parts “one-body”.

CONCLUSION

It is wrong to let the columns transfer all alone the horizontal forces of an earthquake from the bottom to the top in the load-bearing structure, as is currently the case in the majority of the building construction methods.

The horizontal forces of an earthquake are not transferred effortlessly from the columns to the structure framework, this being due to the existence of other forces acting contrary to the direction of the earthquake horizontal forces, said forces originating from the inertia of the plates and resulting in the plates not responding readily to the direction of the earthquake horizontal forces. This opposition of forces on the horizontal axis of the building structure, creates shearing stresses, as well as non-uniform bending in the shape of an S (for the reasons reported above) deforming the vertical axis of the structure, with the known results.

It is at this point that the invention provides for the columns to transfer the earthquake forces uniformly and smoothly, not only vertically towards the top, but also horizontally to the floor plates, by means of the hydraulic tie rod, the pre-stressed shaft, and the hydraulic dampers placed in the gap.

Deductively in this way, the framework vertical axis maintains its initial form, not deforming into an S shape, due to the uniform movement of the mass of the multiple plates in the same time-space imposed on them by the pre-stressed shaft, relieving and helping this way the columns to transfer the destructive earthquake forces to the plates. That is to say, the invention creates controlled flexibility on the load-bearing structure vertical axis, helps the columns transfer laterally the earthquake forces to the plates, at the same time achieving the seismic insulation of the load-bearing structure horizontal axis (with double “one-piece” base-plates carrying elastic inserts between them). Moreover it also stops the tendency of the building to rise unilaterally, said tendency originating from the increase of the oscillation co-ordination, which oscillation co-ordination depends on the height of the building, the time duration of the earthquake as well as the wavelength of the earthquake and the amplitude of its oscillation.

Ground fluidization (subsidence) as well as the cracks, caused by an earthquake, are a major problem, which, however, in part has been resolved by the invention.



Stopping the video at the point showing under the ground surface, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZ...layer_embedded

or http://postimage.org/image/2dmcy79yc/

a pipe can be observed starting from the anchor and reaching up to the bottom part of the base.



This is called resistance pipe, and is useful for the following reasons:

· it constitutes the passage of the steel cable applying the pre-stressing,

· should the ground recede under the base, then this resistance pipe undertakes the weight of the base and transfers it to the banks (side-walls) of the drilling (this is a very important reason),

· should the banks of the drilling recede (due to oscillations), the steel cable does not sag because the hydraulic pressure (under the piston in the upper part of the system) causes the tightening of the steel cable which in turn generates resistance on the bottom anchor piston the movement of which activates the anchor pins to move towards the solid ground around them restoring the desirable embedding in the banks (side-walls) of the drilling.

SECOND PLACEMENT METHOD

There is another method of placement of the hydraulic traction mechanism in building structures.
This method does not include horizontal seismic isolation, http://postimage.org/image/r1aadhj8/
Or bearings
Or gaps
We simply convert sections of the internal brick-built walls of the building to walls consisting of reinforced concrete which have the same continuation on all of the floors. We insert these at carefully placed low pre-stress points between the bore hole and the hydraulic mechanism on the roof.

What we achieve with this method:

a) If the skeletal framework of a building tilts by a few degrees due to oscillation created by an earthquake, do the corners of the framework nodes have the possibility to remain at 90 degree angles?
Of course not,
Why not?
Simply stated, because the skeletal framework has a static load. During oscillation the nodes are required to take the force, but they cannot withstand this so the corners change shape, and, from right angles, some become greater and some lesser than 90 degrees. This results in slanting or bowed cracks in the corner nodes.
If the corners do withstand the static load so that they remain as right angles, logic tells us that the front and back columns will alternatively raise each other off the ground during oscillation. This, though, is impossible because the bearing element is full of nodes and static loads.

b) If the oscillation creates the above problems on the nodes, wouldn’t it be best if we can prevent this? And if so, how can we achieve this?

c) Another option might be to bind the building all around with steel cables at 45 degrees and anchor them (something which is impossible in practice).
Alternatively, we could take a portion of the structure, for example the internal walls and replace them with reinforced concrete and anchor these with the ground at appropriate points. In this way oscillation is prevented by bringing about resistance with roof, the connecting columns and the foundations of the structure.

Why do I recommend that we convert the internal brick walls to reinforced concrete and to anchor these with the ground?

For the following reasons:

a) So that the external walls are fully available for placement of doors, windows and glass panelling.

b) Because the internal walls due to their architectural nature have a cruciform shape and this dimensional form creates greater resistance to an earthquake from whichever direction it comes.

c) Because the formwork can be placed and removed easily.

d) Because dimensionally they are capable of withstanding the tendency to bend.

e) Because they have a superior dimensional plan and are capable of creating greater resistance in the chambers and columns.


In the diagrams below we illustrate the conversion of brick walls to reinforced concrete as well as the anchor points necessary to prevent oscillation of the building which strains the nodes of the structure creating slanting cracks: http://postimage.org/image/r1aadhj8/





Placement in underwater roads:
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=aVsUYe0

Placement in continuous brick- based structures:
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=aVsUGM0

Placement in subordinate and wooden houses for protection from both earthquake and hurricane damage:
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=aVsUEgS

Placement in a dam:
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=aVsUQKA

This system can also be placed in bridge pylons under the bearings.




THIRD PLACEMENT METHOD

By applying prestressing with the hydraulic traction mechanism between the drill hole and the top of the structure via the vertical supports. This prestressing not only improves endurance against shearing, but there is an additional advantage.

During inertia tension of the bearing element, oscillation is brought about. At the prestressed vertical support, two opposing forces are created. One in the pressure chamber and the other in the vertical column and it’s foundation as a reaction to the oscillation. Within the body of the vertical support these two opposing forces created act in resistance against the earthquake.

This resistance is in addition to the resistance already present in the nodes of the structure and acts against the catastrophic power of the earthquake.

We can exert prestress on the vertical elements in two ways:
a) normal prestress or
b) controlled lesser prestress.
If the preferred elements are able to withstand the stressing we apply the normal pre-stress. If they cannot, then we apply the controlled lesser prestress.

Greater prestress is applied initially, the moment we have sunk the traction mechanism in the drill hole, prior to construction of the support structure.

And afterwards, when we have anchored the steel cable with a wedge at ground level at the foundations, we fill the drill hole with concrete prior to constructing a pile. Then we continue the construction and when it is completed we undertake a simple pre-stressing of the upper chamber and foundations.

That is, the same steel cable will receive two pre-stresses. One initially between the ground surface and the anchor, and a second one between the foundations and upper chamber, with differing tensions.

With this method we have other benefits such as:

Compression of the ground (prior to the construction of the pile), protection of the mechanism from rust and avoidance of water extraction which may be present in coastal areas.

We can control the anchorage of the structure, with as much prestress or anchoring as is needed, since the prestress underneath the foundations will have a greater intensity than the subsequent prestressing of the foundations of the structure.



FOURTH PLACEMENT METHOD: BETWEEN THE RADIERE (FOUNDATIONS WHICH COVER THE COMPLETE AREA OF THE CONSTRUCTION) AND THE GROUND.

As can be seen in the photograph http://postimage.org/image/15or8eeuc/ , at the upper part there are two bricks which support a bolt.
Above and below the bolt there are two thick metal plates.
The lower plate is soldered to a resistance pipe.
The upper plate has a hole for the bolt to pass through.
The upper plate bears a nut on the top side and another nut on the underside.

The more this bolt is pulled upwards, the greater the anchor diameter anchor becomes below. This in turn presses increasingly against the walls of the borehole thereby providing anchorage.

If we drill a borehole with a diameter of 20cm and depth of 1.4m and we sink the anchor in it,http://postimage.org/image/2fyw5jh38/ the sinking will halt at the lower plate as it is larger than the hole.

If the bricks in the photograph are in fact hydraulic jacks.http://postimage.org/image/15or8eeuc/ By elevating these we can create a great amount prestress in the system and very strong anchorage against the sides of the borehole.

When the jacks are elevated they exert pressure both upwards and downwards.http://postimage.org/image/15or8eeuc/

The lower plate cannot move downwards because there is resistance from the ground.

The bolt on the upper side of the top plate prevents it from rising due to the upward pressure which the hydraulic jacks create.

We then screw the nut which is situated between the two plates downwards until it reaches the lower plate and in this way we complete the prestressing.

Then we remove the jacks.

Now consider the bolt which protrudes from the ground. We stated that it is secured to the top plate at its upper surface by a nut.

The upper part of the bolt which bears the plate is anchored inside the fortified concrete of the foundations (the radiere). Also, the foundations are connected to the concrete walls via the joining mechanism.http://postimage.org/image/xci31flw/

In this way we will have the beneficial results that I have stated above. That is, we will prevent torque of the corners.

FIFTH PLACEMENT METHOD FOR EXISTING PILOTIS

Here, on each column of the pilotis which is situated around the perimeter of the foundations, we place metal beams which are connected to each other and prestressed at their four corners with the ground using the patented mechanism. After doing this, we place another four metal beams parallel and tangent to the sides of the column. These are anchored into the grooves of the other metal beams. Afterwards we make grooves in the parallel metal beams so that they can be tightened with nuts and bolt. We pass the bolt inside a pipe so that it is independent from the concrete. Around the perimeter of the column we place clamps or insert screws which protrude from the column. We construct a concrete mantle around the perimeter of the column. When this is set, the upper end of the bolt is tightened using the nuts, so creating prestressed concrete.
The same process is repeated on each column of the pilotis.

SIXTH PLACEMENT METHOD FOR EXISTING PREFABRICATED HOUSES

Here, in order to apply prestressing to the structure there are two problems:

1) How will we drill a bore hole?
2) How will we pass the metal cable through the reinforced concrete walls?

SOLUTION
1) Instead of drilling a bore hole under the base, we drill it 40 cm beyond the external fortified concrete walls of the existing prefabricated house.
2) We apply surface prestress between the ground surface and the drill hole so that we anchor the traction mechanism well with the ground.

Prior to applying prestress on the traction mechanism though we have carried out the following:
Underneath the tightening nut we place a hollow steel beam of which one end extends outwards and penetrates into the fortified concrete walls of the structure (which we have previously dug out).

The other end extends back from the bore hole so that we have lever resistance.

The outer end of the hollow beam has a U-shaped groove which is used to anchor one end of the metal cable.

The other end of the cable is anchored to the top of the concrete wall once we have ensured its passage through it by opening a deep gully which is plastered over after the prestressing operation.

In this way we anchor the building externally.

By the same method we can prestress with the ground other prefabricated structures such as dams, pylons, bridges etc.

The traction mechanism is appropriate for all works where piles and cement injection are required. In fact it is far superior to these because it has the added benefit of greater resistance as well as improvement in the relaxation of the ground due to prestressing and ground compression.

It can even be used for containment of loose ground on mountain slopes during the excavation and construction of roads.

Other beneficial properties offered by prestressing of a structure with the ground include:

1) Prestressing (in general, compression) has a very positive result as it improves the trajectories of oblique tension.
2) Compression means that there is reduced cracking. This increases the active cross section and increases rigidity of the structure.

We have two types of construction traction mechanisms and two patent licences pending internationally:

1) The simple traction mechanism for construction. This has exactly the same utility with the hydraulic one on solid ground.
2) The hydraulic traction mechanism for construction. This is suited to loose ground because is protects the structure more from subsidence.

How it achieves this


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


FOUNDATIONS

I propose using large area foundations (radiere) and not individual bases

ECONOMICAL/TECHNICAL STUDY

There are three methods of construction:

a) Frame structure, where the weight of the furniture, the slabs, the walls and the beams is transferred to the columns and then from the columns it is transferred to the foundations.

In a skeletal structure, the walls even though they are counted as static load play an important role in the strength of the structure.

Here, building alterations which are carried out by an individual owner within an apartment building are wrong, not only for his own apartment, but for the whole apartment building.

We must agree that with regards to frame structure, he who carries out alterations must be aware of this.

b) Continuous construction, where the loads are assumed by the walls and transmitted to the ground.

Here alterations are prohibited without an expert.

c) Composite construction, which either utilises different materials (metal beams plus concrete) or continuous construction together with a frame.

I consider that the construction suitable for the traction mechanism is continuous construction internally and frame structure externally.

How I propose to deal with the problem of building alterations:

If, for example, we are constructing an apartment building where every floor contains four apartments, I would carry out the following so that individual owners can carry out the alterations they wish.

Firstly, I would place columns around the perimeter of the building.

After, internally I would construct the internal design in a cross pattern so that the cross creates the partition walls of the four apartments.

I would convert the cross to walls of reinforced concrete and I would anchor their ends with the hydraulic traction mechanism.

At the centre of the cross the elevator shaft would be built and the hallway around this would provide entrance to the apartments (these also made out of reinforced concrete).

If this is done, from whichever direction the earthquake comes there is resistance in the roof and the foundations. Not only this, but because of the large profile area of the cross section of the concrete walls, we eliminate the problem of shearing and bending.

Another possibility which we could carry out so that there is the option to carry out building alterations is the following:

If the apartment building has adjacent walls (which have no windows) we convert the adjacent walls to fortified concrete ones with anchoring. In addition, we convert another central internal wall of the apartment building to fortified concrete so that a double T cross section is formed.

Another possible form which we can give so that we can carry out alterations is to place two elevator shafts together with the corridor shafts at two opposing ends of the structure and insert the traction mechanism in their corners.

These square shafts may serve either as elevators, storerooms or other communal spaces.

If you search, there are always solutions.

I am a builder by trade and when I give an estimate for concrete construction work, the first thing I examine is the degree of difficulty of the formwork.

If you were to ask me to take on the whole construction including the excavation, I would make certain comparisons as to what is in my best interests. Radiere (continuous foundations which cover the whole area of the construction) or foundations with connecting beams ?

Initially I would calculate how many cubic metres of concrete are required for the radiere and how many for the foundations with connecting beams.

From my experience, I believe that the radiere uses 20% more fortified concrete compared to foundations with their connecting beams. The latter though requires much more work than the former in the following areas:

a) formwork
b) excavation

Comparing the figures, we see that the two options if not exactly the same, the radiere is slightly cheaper than the foundations and connecting beams.

It is a fact that more cubic metres of concrete with less formwork create more profit for the contractor. The estimate then per cubic metre of fortified concrete for the radiere will be markedly lower.

Comparing these figures, we see that the radiere is somewhat cheaper even if it does have 20% more fortified concrete.

As for the walls, it is cheaper to build one solid fortified concrete wall than it is to constructing in its place two columns with beam and double masonry.

If the whole house is constructed from fortified concrete there will still be sideways deflections (cracks) because the static loads increase on the bearing element, the inertia of which during an earthquake, will cause the building to lift up on one side and transfer its weight to moment of the nodes.

The cost is approximately 4,000 euro for an anchored radiere of 100 metres square. This includes the mechanisms (the cost of the anchor is 200 euro), construction works and boreholes.

http://postimage.org/image/w37m65ms/
http://postimage.org/image/2mkga1kmc/
http://postimage.org/image/14s73bc04/
http://postimage.org/image/15qym72jo/
http://postimage.org/image/2r7apjukk/


With rock we have a difficult but shallow borehole. On soft ground we have an easy but deeper one. I estimate that these will have the same cost.

link.... anti seismic systems http://www.antiseismic-systems.com/

http://www.michanikos.gr/showthread.php?t=12040

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JJIsx1sKkLk

Ideal for prefabricated houses made ​​of reinforced concrete
Makes Homebuilding cheaper 30 - 50%
Because prefabricated houses made ​​of reinforced concrete are cheap 30 - 50% less than conventional housing

seismic Apr 17, 2011 12:11 PM

Για Έλληνες Μηχανικούς.

Ερώτηση
Τι κάνει η ευρεσιτεχνία, που δεν κάνει η εφαρμοσμένη τεχνολογία σήμερα.
Απάντηση
Η εφαρμοσμένη τεχνολογία σήμερα απλός εδράζει την κατασκευή στο έδαφος.
Η ευρεσιτεχνία την ενώνει με το έδαφος, κάνοντας αυτά τα δύο μέρει ένα, (σαν σάντουιτς)
Ερώτηση
Τι πετυχαίνει αυτή η ένωση της κατασκευής με το έδαφος?
Απάντηση
Όταν στεκόμαστε όρθιοι στο λεωφορείο, και αυτό ξεκινά προς τα εμπρός, εμείς έχουμε την τάση να πάμε προς τα πίσω.
Το ίδιο συμβαίνει στις κατασκευές.
Σε ένα ψιλό κτήριο, κατά την επιτάχυνση του σεισμού, αυτό ταλαντεύεται μπρος - πίσω έχοντας τάση ροπής.
Δηλαδή το κτήριο γέρνοντας ( εναλλάξ ) έχει την τάση, το μπροστινό μέρος του να σηκώσει το πίσω.
Ερώτηση
Γιατί όμως δεν σηκώνεται?
Απάντηση.
Γιατί όταν σηκωθεί το κτήριο μονόπλευρα δημιουργείται ένα κενό κάτω από τις πίσω βάσεις.
Αυτό το κενό δεν παρέχει πλέων στήριξη των πίσω κολονών, και αφήνει το βάρος του πίσω μέρους του κτηρίου μετέωρο
Αυτό το πίσω βάρος του κτηρίου, μεταφέρετε σαν δύναμη ροπής στους κόμβους του μπροστινού μέρους του κτηρίου.
Αυτή η ροπή σπάει τον λαιμό της κολόνας, δημιουργώντας αστοχία.

Αυτό που κάνει η αντισεισμική ευρεσιτεχνία, είναι να μην αφήνει το έργο να σηκωθεί μονόπλευρα, ώστε να μείνουν μετέωρες οι βάσεις, και να δράσουν τα στατικά φορτία του κτηρίου, δημιουργώντας τις ροπές που κόβουν τις κολόνες.
Αυτό το κατορθώνει εξασκόντας μία δύναμη στο δώμα και αυτόματα λόγο ροπής, δημιουργείται και μία άλλη αντίσταση αντίθετη, στο Π της βάσης.
Για να το κατορθώσει αυτό, πρέπει οι κολόνες να είναι μεγάλες, σαν τοιχία, όπως τα προκατασκευασμένα σπίτια, για να αποφύγουμε τον λυγισμό της κολόνας.
Κατ αυτόν τον τρόπο, αν τοποθετήσουμε την ευρεσιτεχνία στα προκατασκευασμένα, κατεβάζουμε και το κόστος της οικοδομής.
Φαντάσου σπίτια ΠΡΟΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΑΣΜΈΝΑ από οπλισμένο σκυρόδεμα, βιδωμένα στις τέσσερις γωνίες με την σεισμική βάση.......και ανάποδα να τα γυρίσεις δεν θα πάθουν τίποτα.
Ερώτηση
Γιατί όταν δεν τα βιδώσουμε με την βάση, τι θα πάθουν?
Απάντηση
Αν έχουμε ψιλά κτήρια εξ ολοκλήρου κατασκευασμένα από οπλισμένο σκυρόδεμα, αυτά θα αντέχουν μεν στην διάτμηση, αλλά οι κόμβοι τους θα έχουν αυξημένα φορτία, λόγο του κενού που αναφέραμε ότι δημιουργείται κατά την ροπή αδράνειας, και λόγο μεγαλύτερου στατικού φορτίου που έχουν από τον κανονικό σκελετό της οικοδομής.
Για τον λόγο αυτό, οι κατασκευές των προκατασκευασμένων είναι για λίγους ορόφους.
Αν όμως κάνουμε ένα σώμα το προκατασκευασμένο με το έδαφος, ...δεν μπορεί να σηκωθεί μονόπλευρα,στην ροπή αδράνειας, οπότε, καταργούμε τις ροπές των κόμβων.

Υπάρχει και το οικονομικό μέρος.
Πιστεύω ότι αυτή η μέθοδος θα βάλει τα προκατασκευασμένα από σκυρόδεμα σπίτια, και μέσα στην πόλη.

Έως τώρα αυτά τα σπίτια είναι μόνο για εξοχικά.
Ο κύριος λόγος είναι ότι, ο νόμος δεν τους επιτρέπει, το ύψος τους να ξεπερνά τους δύο ορόφους.
Όταν όμως γίνουν άτρωτα στον σεισμό, και μπορούν να αντέχουν πολλούς ορόφους, τότε θα επιτραπεί και η δόμηση στην πόλη.

Τώρα δεν τα βάζουν μέσα σε πόλεις, διότι αν στην πόλη επιτρέπετε να χτίσεις ένα δεκαόροφο, και το προκατασκευασμένο αντέχει δύο ορόφους, δεν σε συμφέρει να χάσεις τον αέρα για άλλους οκτώ ορόφους.

Αν όμως το κάνω να αντέχει, τότε θα καταργηθούν οι συμβατικοί τρόποι κατασκευής, γιατί τα προκατασκευασμένα είναι πιο φτηνά,30-50% γιατί είναι βιομηχανοποιημένα.
Έτσι θα έχουν κέρδος οι βιομήχανοι από αυτή την αλλαγή, αλλά και οι ιδιοκτήτες.
Το αντισεισμικό σύστημα,μπορεί να τοποθετηθεί σε υπό κατασκευή,καθώς και σε υφιστάμενες κατασκευές.
Τοποθετήτε σε σπίτια, φράγματα, πυλώνες γεφυρών, πρανή εδαφών και σε πολλά έργα αντιστήριξης, σαν προετεταμένο αγκύριο
Προστατεύει και τις ελαφριές κατασκευές, από τους ανεμοστρόβιλους, που συμβαίνουν συχνά στην Αμερική.
Ακόμα προστατεύει τις κατασκευές από την καθίζηση των χαλαρών εδαφών, γιατί δουλεύει σαν την βίδα με το ούπα, που δεν αφήνει την βίδα να πάει ούτε μέσα, ούτε έξω

Με λίγα λόγια, η ροπή αδράνειας σηκώνει την κατασκευή μονόπλευρα,...και τα στατικά φορτία δημιουργούν την αστοχία.
Πως αλλιώς μπορούμε να εξηγήσουμε τα λοξά βέλη?

Αν όμως εφαρμόσουμε προένταση μεταξύ εδάφους και δώματος, σε στοιχεία με μεγάλη διατομή κάτοψις, τότε αυτά αδυνατούν να περιστραφούν στην ροπή αδράνειας, λόγο δύο αντίθετων δυνάμεων που εφαρμόζονται κατακόρυφα στην μάζα τους
α) Μία κάθετη δύναμη από τον ελκυστήρα στο δώμα,
β) Από την αντίσταση του εδάφους στο Π της βάσης.
Έτσι την ροπή την παίρνει το τοιχίο,.....και όχι ο κόμβος.

photoLith Apr 19, 2011 3:50 AM

Sorry, every time I see this thread pop up on the main forum page I think it says my anti semitic system. Anyways, carry on.

TimCity2000 Apr 19, 2011 4:59 PM

Quote:

Originally Posted by photolitherland (Post 5246676)
Sorry, every time I see this thread pop up on the main forum page I think it says my anti semitic system. Anyways, carry on.

was JUST about to say the same thing, lol...

seismic Apr 20, 2011 5:40 PM

My new patent
 
http://postimage.org/image/8nyg7xb8/

seismic Apr 26, 2011 6:49 PM

What does this invention achieve which is not achieved with the current technology?
 
What does this invention achieve which is not achieved with the current technology?
Current technology simply secures the structure to the ground. My invention unites it with the ground making these two as one (like a sandwich). For me, this uniting of the structure with the ground beneficially changes the direction and type of forces which act upon the structure dynamically during an earthquake.

Influences which cause failure in buildings:
a) Shearing stress
b) Moment of the nodes

How these are created:

A) SHEARING STRESS
a) Shearing stress is created mainly on the vertical supporting components during earthquake acceleration due to the inertia of the mass.
Question: Is the shearing stress the same in all of the supporting components?
Answer: No. The shearing is greater in force in the ground floor components
Question: Why?
Answer: For two main reasons
- They have to handle (in movement) a greater mass which necessitates greater inertia, thereby creating greater shearing on the cross section plan.
- The ground floor components are more rigid.
All of the other supporting components (except for those of the ground floor) have a certain amount of elasticity in the nodes and supporting components which is beneficial in that they absorb the force of the earthquake due to transfer of this force into heat.

However, this beneficial absorption of energy is cancelled to a greater degree by the components of the ground floor for one main reason. Underneath the components (columns) on the ground floor the base is inflexible (because it is usually under the ground). It therefore transfers wholly the acceleration of the earthquake (and in this way shearing stress is also increased).
At the components (columns) of the upper floors the same does not occur because the components of the ground floor have already absorbed part of the force and less energy is transferred upwards to the more elastic components.

Because of this and due to the increased mass load which has to be handled we see greatly increased shearing stresses on the ground floor components. This explains why the majority of failures happen on the ground floor.
This issue can be resolved by increasing the cross section plan of the components of the ground floor. But if we do this then another problem occurs; we lose the elasticity in the components (and in this way we also lose the damping of the acceleration).



B) MOMENT OF THE NODES
Moment of the nodes also acts to create stress on the horizontal and vertical supporting components by shearing stress and occurs for the following reason.
During the acceleration of an earthquake we know that there is inertia of the load bearing elements but in addition inertia of the bearing mass has to be handled. These burden the vertical components with horizontal shearing stress.
In a high rise building, the vertical components are united from the first up to the top floor. The structural integrity of all the components of the load bearing elements (columns, girders, slabs) is improved when these are joined at the node points.

During the inertia of the bearing elements, these node points react with moment which taxes the vertical and horizontal supporting elements with shearing stresses. If the design is not correct, this results in failure of the vertical elements which are brittle but not the horizontal.
The reason for this is that the vertical elements (columns) have a smaller cross section by comparison to the girders. The girders mass along the length forms a structural unit with the slab so that it is considered a unified body stronger than the vertical element.
If we consider that each column bears at least two girders, we understand the difference in endurance (with regards to the shearing) between the column and the horizontal bearing element.

During oscillation of a tall building, there is the tendency for it to lift up off the ground on one side due to moment, creating a gap underneath the back foundations. That is, the front columns try to lift up the back ones due to the structural unity that they have. This unity is provided by the girders.
This gap cancels the resistance which is present between the ground and building base as the base which was securing the building is now in mid-air.
Of course, this event never really happens in reality because the static load of the structure during the lifting of one side immobilizes the column with the base to the ground creating moment of the nodes.

These moments create slanted shearing of the cross section of the vertical element which cannot withstand the load and we have cancelling of the structural unity of the building.

This explanation can be clearly seen during the first minute of the experiment which I have carried out:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JJIsx1sKkLk

In the first minutes of the experiment, we see a wooden structure (building skeleton) which, during inertia oscillates and lifts up on one side and then on the other alternately. This occurs because it is light and the nodes withstand the moment which is created from the static weight of the unsupported side of the structure.
As soon as we place the static load of the two bricks, it still oscillates but the base does not lift up on either side. In this situation the nodes can no longer withstand the additional load of the bricks.
Considering the analysis I have done above, we see why a structure fails when the limits of the design are surpassed.
There is no absolute anti-seismic design.
Current Greek anti-seismic systems have a certain amount of endurance but from this point onwards, the truth is that they are fragile. In my opinion the endurance here has particular limits due to my reasoning above. This phenomenon can be resolved by increasing the cross section plan of the ground floor components. If we do this though, another problem emerges; as stated before; we lose elasticity of the components (and the depreciation of the acceleration).

MY PROPOSED SOLUTION
The solution can be seen in the continuation of the experiment shown in the link above as well as in the explanation below.

There are three issues which need to be addressed in order to apply pre-stressing between the ground and the structure (the clamping of the ground with the structure)
a) bending
b) durability of the materials
c) durability of the ground

For the pre-stressing or clamping of the structure with the ground to operate beneficially during an earthquake, a large cross section plan of the supporting components is necessary as well as very durable materials if it is to provide additional benefits.
Pre fabricated houses offer these two necessary components as they are constructed completely from fortified concrete.
The problem of loose ground (c) is resolved by using Radiere together with the specialised hydraulic traction mechanism. This improves the durability of the ground and provides additional support to the foundations.

See what happens to conventional houses:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hgc19...eature=related

Imagine PREFABRICATED houses which are made of fortified concrete and secured (screwed) at their four corners with this seismic base … even if they are turned upside down, nothing can happen to them.
Question:
When we do not screw down the base, what will happen?
Answer:
If we have tall buildings completed constructed from fortified concrete, these will withstand the shearing stress but their nodes will have increased load due to the gap (discussed above) which is created under the base during second moment of the area as well as the greater static load which they bear. The combination of moment and static load creates slanting cracks in the walls.
Because of this prefabricated houses are suitable to be built only a few stories high. If we make the prefabricated house from fortified concrete ONE with the ground though:

http://postimage.org/image/r1aadhj8/

…. It cannot lift up on one side during second moment of the area and in this way we avoid moment of the nodes.

THE FINANCIAL ASPECT

I believe that with this method, prefabricated houses can be placed in towns. Until now these houses have only been suitable for rural areas. The main reason for this is that the law does not allow them to be built more than two stories high.
If they become invulnerable during an earthquake and they can withstand the force with many stories then their construction will be permitted in towns.
At this moment, they are not permitted in towns because if, in a town ten story buildings are allowed and prefabricated ones can only be constructed up to two stories, financially it is not feasible to lose the possibility of another eight stories.

If I enable them to withstand earthquakes, then conventional methods of construction will be dispensed due to the fact that prefabricated structures are 30-50% cheaper because they are industrially produced. This way the manufacturers will profit from this change.

Apart from being for anti-seismic use, my invention can be used as a pre-stressing anchor for the improvement of the ground:

For example: http://postimage.org/image/29l3p1xpg/

That is, it can improve the density of loose ground as well as not allowing the structure to move upwards (during oscillation) or downwards (during subsidence of the ground).

I have already mentioned the placement methods in existing and buildings under construction as well as other types of structures such as dams and bridges etc.

The patent is also appropriate also for the protection of lightweight buildings during tornadoes which are seen mostly in the United States .

seismic Nov 29, 2011 8:45 PM

View this video.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JJIsx1sKkLk" target="_blank">Video Link


It is the Greek dialect, but.....

Shows three different load-bearing structure.

a) The first bearing frame construction is lightweight.

b) The second bearing frame construction is heavy.

c) The third, bearing frame is bolted to the ground

See how nodes react when we have an earthquake.:previous:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZcHBKRI

seismic Jan 25, 2012 2:51 AM

Hello,

I'm writing to let you know about 'Antiseismic-Systems - Earthquake Protection Systems'

Take a moment to check it out on IndieGoGo and also share it with your friends. All the tools are there. Get perks, make a contribution, or simply follow updates. If enough of us get behind it, we can make 'Antiseismic-Systems - Earthquake Protection Systems' happen.

http://www.indiegogo.com/Antiseismic...=392219&i=emal

seismic Apr 1, 2012 9:11 PM

Draft report
 
My Friends.
The simulation is done at Technical University of Greece showed that the system improves the earthquake resistance of structures 31.9% more than the current earthquake safety regulations.
Draft report https://rapidshare.com/#!download|18...χνίας.rar

seismic Apr 25, 2012 8:46 PM

The plan indicates a link to the wall of reinforced concrete.
http://postimage.org/image/pb6enkih7/
When we ground acceleration (A) from the earthquake, due to its inertia, wall to create a torque (Δ) and an opposing lateral force (B)
The result is when the wall accept these charges, tend to be reversed.
I ask
How much power needs to put in (E) so that the wall not reversed, and not even get up from the ground;

Wall dimensions 3,00 m x 1,5 m x 0,30 m
Pecial weight concrete 2450kg/m3
Ground acceleration 20m/min
Benchmark (E)
Acceleration (A) as shown on the plan.:rolleyes:

seismic Mar 10, 2013 6:42 PM

Opinion of the International Patent Office
 
Opinion of the International Patent Office for Hydraulic tractor
Has a very positive opinion for hydraulic tractor.
http://postimage.org/image/32vfj43z8/
http://postimage.org/image/2g4sfacsk/
http://postimage.org/image/332ou0y04/
http://postimage.org/image/33322bpyc/

seismic Apr 27, 2013 5:26 PM

designing frames, or asymmetrical structures, the solution is....
 
1) to separate the flexible columns, from the rigid columns
2) amortization method of seismic energy in the vertical and horizontal axis of the frame.
3) nodes to move freely round the rigid column

https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/i...m6_iuOU6fsUXY2https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/i...QN70j5YbWn9fqQhttps://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/i...0aftgVYDfxejLghttps://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/i...DCVJEcQdIhzJsghttp://i50.tinypic.com/qp1ixk.jpg

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature...&v=KPaNZcHBKRI

seismic May 1, 2013 8:13 AM

http://www.adslgr.com/forum/attachme...131394&thumb=1

Giannhs Lymperis • PCT Opinion
http://postimage.org/image/32vfj43z8/
http://postimage.org/image/2g4sfacsk/
http://postimage.org/image/332ou0y04/
http://postimage.org/image/33322bpyc/

From what the examiner says that I have something patentably new and useful. Improved anchoring means comprising expansion anchors in combination with hydraulic tensioning means to keep the building tightly tethered to the ground. This would also be good for hurricane country, like the US Gulf Coast.

in Greece I have the patent.
I had filed for international patent in pct
passed Research Report (A)
Filing in america at the patent office.
I have not gotten a patent in america yet .... expected
more
I went to a university in Greece.
this one http://users.civil.ntua.gr/papadrakakis/
and here http://www.itsak.gr/en
I have the first preliminary results of applied research simulationIs in Greek language. It's very good results.
The Institute of Engineering Seismology and Earthquake EngineeringResearch and Technical Institute has a different opinion.told me that .... there is not a program in whole world that simulates vertical prestressing.
They told me that I need to do ( experiments ) seismic testing on some construction models, because it is not possible to simulate. I have no money for experiments.I want to find a foreign university to work on experiments, without me to pay maney.
The patent is under investigation by me and the Greek university and we have discovered much about the patent.
By design method that I suggest, https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/i...m6_iuOU6fsUXY2
you have the opportunity to design a flexible structure.
Rigid vertical elements
The main reason I designed the seismic joint (rubber mounted air gap between the baffle plates and the shaft) are
to separate the flexible columns of rigid columns.
With this method, we have a frame construction which is flexible,
and in it, a rigid colomn, which is independent of load bearing because it has a seismic joint
The rigid components to take the main role assigned to them, and is to controlling the deformation of the bearing.
plasticity
a flexible node (the one in seismic joint) deletes the usefulness of plasticity

seismic May 4, 2013 9:26 AM

My suggestion for frame structure (Method seismic stop)
 
http://s5.postimg.org/rllh3dhzb/002.jpg

seismic May 26, 2013 5:33 PM

Patent publication in America.
 
http://postimg.org/image/8ox3ft743/

seismic Jun 11, 2013 12:28 PM

Who wants to work with me to continue applied research on my invention;
These are the first results of applied research from the National Technical University of Greece.
I have no money to continue applied research.
I am looking to find scientific partners.
I did the translation myself.
I hope you UNDERSTAND what I say.



Basics of simulation
Page 5 of 34
This project involves the numerical simulation and investigate the behavior of the system.
Brief description of the invention
The principal object of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects of the present invention as well as of the method for constructing building structures utilizing the hydraulic tie rod of the present invention is to minimise the aforesaid problems associated with the safety of construction structures in the event of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, hurricanes and very high lateral winds. According to the present invention, this can be achieved by a continuous pre-stressing (pulling) of both the building structure towards the ground and of the ground towards the structure, making these two parts one body like a sandwich. Said pre-stressing is applied by means of the mechanism of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects. Said mechanism comprises a steel cable crossing freely in the centre the structure's vertical support elements and also the length of a drilling beneath them. Said steel cable's lower end is tied to an anchor-type mechanism that is embedded into the walls of the drilling to prevent it from being uplifted. Said steel cable's top end is tied to a hydraulic pulling mechanism, exerting a continuous uplifting force. The pulling force applied to the steel cable by means of the hydraulic mechanism and the reaction to such pulling from the fixed anchor at the other end of it generate the desired compression in the construction project.

Page 6 of 34
Investigates the behavior of buildings with and without the proposed system in order to draw useful conclusions about the effectiveness
The challenge is the preliminary investigation into the conceptual,
software was chosen Seismostruct v5.2.2 company Seismosoft.
Page 7 of 34
General description of the tested models
Examined two buildings a three-storey and a five-storey
materials of models
1) confined concrete ( conf )
2) non-confined concrete ( une )
3) steel ( rein )

1) confined concrete ( conf ) features

features symbol rate units

compressive strength fc 30 MPa
tensile strength ft 0 MPa
deformation at σ max εc 0,002
parameter toggles kc 1,2
specific weight Yconc 24 kN/m3

Page 8 of 34
http://postimg.org/image/rqu2o0737/
Figure 2 detail reinforcement concrete element.
Distinguished positions confining concrete
http://postimg.org/image/ibs9p3mrx/
Figure 3 diagram Chart - strain (sample) for confined concrete used in the models.

Page 9 of 34
2) non-confined concrete ( une )

features symbol rate units

compressive strength fc 30 MPa
tensile strength ft 0 MPa
deformation at σ max εc 0,002
parameter toggles kc 1
specific weight Yconc 24 kN/m3
http://postimg.org/image/7e8qrdyxt/
Figure 4 diagram Chart - strain (sample) for confined concrete used in the models.

Page 10 of 34
3) steel ( rein )
steel has the following characteristics

features symbol rate units

elasticity parameter Es 200 GPa
yield stress fy 500 MPa
hardening parameter μ 0,005
strain at break εult 0,1
specific weight Y steel 78 kN/m3
http://postimg.org/image/brzb3wrtv/
Figure 5. diagram Chart - strain (sample) steel used in the models.

sections
The cross sections of the models is
1) cross-section column
2) cross-section beam

seismic Jun 11, 2013 12:54 PM

Page 11 of 34
cross-section column
the cross section of the column model consists of confined concrete ( conf )
non-confined concrete ( unc )
has the following characteristics

characteristic rate

sectional shape rectangular
Width 30 cm
height 40 cm
reinforcement at corners 4/16
reinforcement upper and lower cheek Φ/12
lateral sidewall reinforcement 2/12
total reinforcement 4/16+6/12

Figure 6. section column http://postimg.org/image/3yjmc0263/
Distinguish three different materials

Page 12 of 34
cross-section beam

The cross beam consists of confined concrete ( conf )
non-confined concrete ( unc )
has the following characteristics

characteristic rate

sectional shape T-shaped plate-girder
effective width 100 cm
slab thickness 15 cm
beam height 60 cm
beam width 25 cm
reinforcement beam down 3/14
reinforcement beam over 2/14
Buccal armature beam Φ10/cheek
armor plate over 6/10
armor plate under 4/10
total reinforcement 5/14+12/10

Figure 7. cross beam. distinguish three different materials.
http://postimg.org/image/liebad51d/
Page 13 of 34
finite elements
the finite element models used in the building is a three-dimensional non - linear ribbed finite element based on the strength
(3D Inelastic force-based element ) with 4 integration points along with visa fibers.
The number of fibers in each section is 200
this item is used for the simulation of columns and beams.

Figure 8. finite element space, to simulate columns and beams
http://postimg.org/image/48p23wyrb/
4.4 analysis - methodology

performed nonlinear analyzes for each building with the finite element method, taking into consideration effects of nonlinearity of material and geometry.
analyzes are non-linear, static ( pushover ), while charging a triangular distribution
height which corresponds approximately to the first peculiarity of the examined structure

The total number of trainees loads has rate 1kN that the base shear during charging it to a rate 1kN and therefore importune coefficient λ is equal to the base shear (1*λ) for the various phases of the analysis.
value - the objective of the movement is set at 0.18 m
The load is transmitted in 50 steps for both models.

Page 14 of 34

As a control node set node of higher level of construction ( z=max ) to whom x=0 and y=0, as shown in more detail in Figures

The proposed system causes the exercise of a compressive force in each column where applicable.
The simulation of this phenomenon
been addressed by imposing a compressive strength in columns
considered that the system applies.

5. three-storey reinforced concrete building
5.1 general characteristics of the building.

the test building displays regularity
in plan and height.

general characteristics of the building.

floor height............................................ .......3m
span length x ...............................................5m
span length z ...............................................5m
diaphragm ....... yes on each floor
supports .......... anchors on all nodes with z=0 (ground)

Figure 9. plan three-storey building
http://postimg.org/image/a050s6yg7/

Page 15 of 34

Figure 10. front face of the three-storey building
http://postimg.org/image/viypllunn/
Figure 11. side view of the three-storey building
http://postimg.org/image/6mws5h4vb/

Page 16 of 34

Figure 12. perspective view of a three storey building (a)
characterized the control node of the structure
http://postimg.org/image/kqx8rm1gn/

Figure 13. perspective view of a three storey building (b)
characterized the control node of the structure.
http://postimg.org/image/jzxkdmhvb/

Page 17 of 34

5.2 analytical results
5.2.1 without the application of prestressing.

The following figure shows the diagram
base shear - displacement for node monitoring.

Figure 14. power curve (kN) - displacement (m) without the application of prestressing
http://postimg.org/image/jzxkdmhvb/

the maximum value of the chart is 900.62 kN, illustrated for the displacement of the control node 0.1296 m

5.2.2 compressive load 600 kN to nodes of higher level.
Applied compressive load 600 kN to nodes of higher level due to the prestressing force.
Initial (A) charged with the compressive force the central column.
then (B) the load applied to the four corner columns.
to the end (C) loaded all the 9 columns of the building

The positive trend in each column is ..
600 kN / (0.30 m * 0.40)=5000 kN/m2=5MPa

the ultimate limit state of column
because grief
(Taking into account the safety factor
having a value of 1.5 for concrete),
the tensile strength for concrete C 30 is 30 MPa/1.5=20MPa.

Page 18 of 34

therefore the positive trend in the columns corresponding to the 5/20 = 25% strain at break,
the ultimate limit state.

A. Compressive load of 600 kN to the central hub of higher level.

The diagram below shows the chart base shear-movement
for the control node.

Figure 15. power curve (kN) - displacement (m) applying compressive load 600 kN at 4 corner nodes of higher level
http://postimg.org/image/50gpcep27/

the maximum value of the diagram without the application of prestressing was
600.62 kN for displacement 0.1296 m

the maximum value of the chart by applying a compression load 600
to the central hub of the upper level is
929.82 kN for displacement 0.1116 m

improving the carrying capacity is
978.77 - 929.82 = 48.95 kN

the percentage improvement in base shear is
48.95 / 900.62 = 5.4%

result
There is a slight improvement in the carrying capacity of the building,
due to the application of the compressive load on the central column of the building.

Page 19 of 34

B.Compressive load 600 kN at 4 corner nodes of higher level.

The following figure shows the base shear diagram
- Movement on the control node.

Figure 16. power curve - Shift by applying compressive load 600 kN at 4 corner nodes of the upper level
http://postimg.org/image/pakwo6603/

the maximum value of the diagram without the application of prestressing was
900.62 kN for displacement 0.1296 m

the maximum value of the chart by applying a compression load 600 kN at 4
corner nodes of the upper level is.
978.77 kN for displacement 0.1044 m

improvement in carrying capacity is.
978.77 - 900.62 = 78.15 kN

the percentage improvement in base shear is.
218.39 / 900.62 = 8.7%

result
there is a slight improvement in the bearing capacity of the building, through the application of compressive forces in the four corner columns of the building.


Page 20 of 34

Γ. Compressive load 600 kN on all nodes of higher level.

The following figure shows the diagram base shear - displacement for node control

Figure 17. power curve ( kN ) - displacement ( m )
applying compressive load 600 kN on all nodes of higher level
http://postimg.org/image/i7pfrq2sd/

the maximum value of the chart without applying prestressing was
900.62 kN for displacement 0.1296 m

the maximum value of the chart by applying a compression load 600 kN to all nodes of the upper level is
1,119.01 kN for displacement 0.1008 m

improvement in bearing capacity is 1119.01 - 900.62 = 218.39 kN

The percentage improvement in the maximum base shear is 218.39 / 900.62 = 24.2%

result
observed a significant improvement in the bearing capacity of the building, through the application of compressive forces in all the 9 columns of the building

Page 21 of 34

5.2.3 compressive load 1,200 kN to nodes of higher level

applied compressive load 1,200 kN to nodes of higher level, ratio of prestressing force.

initially ( A ) charged with the compressive strength the four corner columns
slowly charged and nine columns of the building

applied compressive load 1,200 kN to nodes of higher level due to the prestressing force.
The positive trend in each column is
1200 kN / ( 0.30 m *0.40 m ) = 10,000 kN/m2 =10 MPa

the ultimate limit state of the column due to grief (taking into account the safety factor has a value of 1.5 for concrete)
the tensile strength for concrete C 30 is 30 MPa / 1.5 = 20 MPa
therefore
The positive trend in columns
corresponds to 10/20 = 50% strain at break

A. compressive load 1,200 kN at 4 corner nodes of higher level

The following figure shows the base shear diagram - movement on the control node.

Figure 18. power curve (kN) - Displacement (m) applied compressive load 1,200 kN at 4 corner nodes of higher level.
http://postimg.org/image/4ix16x4o3/

Page 22 of 34

the maximum value of the chart without applying prestressing was
900.62 kN for displacement 0.1296 m

the maximum value of the chart by applying compressive load 1200 kN at 4 corner points of the maximum level is
995.46 kN for displacement 0.1188 m

improvement in bearing capacity is
995.46 - 900.62 = 10.5%

result
there is a slight improvement in the bearing capacity of the building, through the application of compressive forces in the four corner columns of the building.

seismic Jun 11, 2013 12:56 PM

B. compressive load 1,200 all nodes of higher level.

The following figure shows the base shear - displacement diagram for the control node.

Figure 19. power curve ( kN ) - Displacement (m) applied compressive load 1,200 kN all nodes of higher level.
http://postimg.org/image/7fonkxzvn/

the maximum value of the diagram without the application of prestressing was
900.62 kN for displacement 0.1296 m

the maximum value of the chart by applying a compression load 1200 kN on all nodes of higher level is 1, 179.33 kN for displacement 0.0864 m

improvement in bearing capacity is
1179.33 - 900.62 = 278.71 kN

The percentage improvement in base shear is
278.71 / 900.62 = 30.9%

result
observed a significant improvement in the bearing capacity of the building, through the application of compressive forces in all nine columns of the building

Page 23 of 34

Conclusions.
when the system is applied to all columns, then leads to significantly increased values ​​of the bearing capacity of the building.

considered that the results of the preliminary investigation are encouraging.
required
Further detailed investigation of the system in two phases.

First-level analytical simulation, which will consider more detailed models of structures with more charges.

second-level shake table experiment where you need to consider a range of construction, to scale.
To evaluate the system's behavior in real loading conditions

seismic Nov 4, 2013 4:03 PM

my experiment
 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nS8kOudxxyY
after the experiment
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=50lvScbp8VA

next step is
a) Repair the transmission of seismic base
b) Experiment in two more phases with higher acceleration (speed)
c) If the model is not damaged, Ι will take off the bolts and I will do the experiment again without them. (comparing similar models with my system and without my system). to make some useful conclusions.

seismic Nov 13, 2013 11:48 AM

MY NEW EXPERIMENT



this video shows the medium accelerations .

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ubLKyyO2q0
Even greater acceleration
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zOyoEWpvsjM
Even greater speed than the other two times .
Look towards the end of the video that gets the beam base !
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6og4VWFcGA

In this video got the beam broke the bearing of a bar that makes the transmission
reciprocating motion, and I had after 3.5 minutes that nodded to stop.
The model did not suffer the slightest , the base dissipated .
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iUH5OBd64vc

no cracking ... not suffered the slightest .
After the experiment
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FBJi...ature=youtu.be
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xNfB...ature=youtu.be
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EnsC...ature=youtu.be
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7XH-...ature=youtu.be

seismic Nov 20, 2013 8:47 AM

THIRD EXPERIMENT WITHOUT THE SYSTEM SEISMOSTOP
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ux8TzWYvuQ0

After the third experiment (Control structure model and base)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dTBr0CtjRoM

If the system I have is strong or not, by anchoring structures will be discussed later with another different experiment .
Consider if the foundation of the project with the ground and the roof is better seismic design of the existing earthquake regulations .
Imagine that fat in this experiment https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6og4VWFcGA there is only the construction and soil.
The construction in our model starts from the raft and above, and the ground of the iron based seismic and down.
I think that in the depths of a drilling anchors if the anchor is impossible for construction to pick up all this ground.
Since I consider the seismic base as ground very powerful clamping , in our experiment, think that soil is the seismic base, bearings , the W of the iron beam, the beams O.S which rests the foundation, and whatever else may be.
The model ground ( seismic base) join the tendons .
During the oscillation of the model tendons reacted to rising roof and raised the iron seismic base. The iron seismic base in turn raised his bearings which rests , bearings found resistance at the anode were in F the iron beam , and this is well anchored to the beam from the O.S lifted upwards.
All this is a result of chain torque model.

Removing the screws from the bottom of the base changed the whole scene .
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ux8TzWYvuQ0

The model not having the screws to hold it began to wobble dangerously . The bearings were no longer in the upward tendency of the beam Π, because the model of oscillated only on the basis of seismic iron . Instead of upward trends bearings took percussive strokes of the oscillation of raft on the seismic base. Bearings are dyed and not withstand the impact. For this and broke .
The model does not fight happened almost anything, because it was very powerful nodes ( horizontal and vertical ) and because it was not possible to test the accelerations tested the previous experiment with the bolts , because we would have complete reversal .
The conclusion I make myself is that if the model was more multi storey would have even more sway than that of two floors .... The first conclusion is that this earthquake is very much necessary for the fine buildings to stop the oscillation from the air, and the earthquake .
If this model O.S experiment was made ​​of bricks ( bricks ) without columns, imagine for yourself what would happen if there were no screws and rods . Conclusion necessary that the earthquake in the continuous construction.
This is my opinion .... I would be happy to know and yours .
Basically what makes this invention is that it makes far more powerful rigid large vertical elements , giving them greater resistance to both cutting as well as the lateral loads .
There are many designs for installation , which depend on the architectural design needs .

seismic Dec 1, 2013 1:41 PM

The ultimate seismic system construction
 
We plan ductile structures, but we also need the torsional stiffness to stop the torsion of asymmetric floors.
Design methods yield (or else plastic zones) which are default locations of failure to be the first ultimate-yield in a powerful earthquake.
My invention provides...
a) vertical elements .... 1) stiffness 2) resistance to shear force 3) greater resistance to horizontal load 4) less deformation 5) strong foundation.

b) Better methods yield-or else plastic zones
Video design. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZcHBKRI
My invention provides...
a) vertical elements .... 1) stiffness 2) resistance to shear force 3) greater resistance to horizontal load 4) less deformation 5) strong foundation.
How...?
Brief description of the invention
The principal object of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects of the present invention as well as of the method for constructing building structures utilizing the hydraulic tie rod of the present invention is to minimise the aforesaid problems associated with the safety of construction structures in the event of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, hurricanes and very high lateral winds. According to the present invention, this can be achieved by a continuous pre-stressing (pulling) of both the building structure towards the ground and of the ground towards the structure, making these two parts one body like a sandwich. Said pre-stressing is applied by means of the mechanism of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects. Said mechanism comprises a steel cable crossing freely in the centre the structure's vertical
support elements and also the length of a drilling beneath them. Said steel cable's lower end is tied to an anchor-type mechanism that is embedded into the walls of the drilling to prevent it from being uplifted. Said steel cable's top end is tied to a hydraulic pulling mechanism, exerting a continuous uplifting force. The pulling force applied to the steel cable by means of the hydraulic mechanism and the reaction to such pulling from the fixed anchor at the other end of it generate the desired prestressing in the construction project.
This prestressing ensures to the vertical elements of 1) greater stiffness 2) resistance to shear force 3) greater resistance to horizontal load 4) less deformation 5) strong foundation.
b) Better methods yield-or else plastic zones
In the video we see two static systems....one inside the other.
The first prestressed rigid structure has 1) greater stiffness 2) resistance to shear force 3) greater resistance to horizontal load 4) less deformation 5) strong foundation,...to receive large shocks from ductile static carrier and stop the deformation of ductile static carrier.
At the height of the plates created seismic joint for two reasons
1)The seismic joint gradually grows on the upper floors to avoid transferring loads to the lower floors, derived from the primary impact plate - elevator shaft
See the plan http://s5.postimg.org/rllh3dhzb/002.jpg
2)For to separate the vertical rigid elements of the ductile elements for better cooperation between these two structural systems

The seismic joint gives freedom to all the free movement of ductile construction which itself is a mechanism amortization of seismic energy.
Amortization of seismic energy ensures the invention of the video .. to
1) The hydraulic system on the roof.
2) The seismic joint
3) The horizontal seismic isolation
These two structural systems can work together as we see in the video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZcHBKRI
or we can only use the rigid structural system itself to build rigid structures, as indicated by the links
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6og4VWFcGA
http://postimg.org/image/poaeawzrj/

1) Model response frame structure with absorption of energy at the base , on the roof , and bulkheads of slabs .

Is this the model construction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZcHBKRI

2 ) Plan model asymmetric multi-storey building with energy absorption in the base ,
the roof , and bulkheads of slabs .

Is this model http://postimage.org/image/tg1lzxv05/

3 ) Model response with energy absorption in the loft

Is this the model construction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JJIsx1sKkLk
and this in plan http://postimage.org/image/r1aadhj8/

4 ) Model response to absorption of energy in existing structures .
One of the many design models wall O.S transfected or transfected steel structures
http://postimage.org/image/k51vo9k15/

diskojoe Dec 2, 2013 11:55 PM

When I saw the title my brain read this as my anti semitic systems

:haha::haha::haha::haha::haha::haha::haha::haha:

seismic Dec 3, 2013 7:07 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by diskojoe (Post 6360589)
When I saw the title my brain read this as my anti semitic systems

:haha::haha::haha::haha::haha::haha::haha::haha:

You need seismic isolation in your brain :koko:

seismic Dec 8, 2013 1:18 PM

Read something else...
not write it in the books.

Equilibrium equations is the great need of building
The loadings (external or static) will always exist.
We can not eliminate loads.
But we can drive loads in sections that are stronger than other sections.
Vertical cross sections of the columns are stronger than horizontal cross sections of the columns.
All structures with nodes lead loads in the horizontal cross section of the column.
The roof - soil compaction deflects lateral earthquake loads in vertical sections of pillars. These sections are stronger and withstand more loads.

As shown in Figure 1 http://postimg.org/image/rbudm6oqr/
When the column is at stationary state, the static actions are balanced with the opposing forces of soil
As shown in Figure 3 http://postimg.org/image/rbudm6oqr/
The oscillation of the building changes the vertical axis of the column
See the slope change P that is observed at the regional sides.
As shown in Figure 2 http://postimg.org/image/rbudm6oqr/
The combination of static actions, Σ with the changes of vertical axis of the column, create the torsional moment P of the node.
How the invention stops the existence torsional moment P of the node.
As shown in Figure 4 http://postimg.org/image/rbudm6oqr/
Clamped column can not be moved up and down because it is clamped with the ground, with the mechanism of the invention.
As shown in Figure 5 http://postimg.org/image/rbudm6oqr/
The Clamped column with the ground, stops the oscillation of the vertical axis of the column, because the hydraulic mechanism of the invention applies an opposite stress in the rise of the roof Δ ( derived from the clamped anchor in soil ) and another inverted stress in the base Ε
As shown in Figure 6 http://postimg.org/image/rbudm6oqr/
The Clamped column with the ground, transfer lateral load of inertia at the vertical axis of the column, as shear force.
This does not happen with the seismic design of today.
Τhe seismic design of today drives the shear forces at the small sections of the columns and beams.
What design is the best?
1) To plan the seismic design of today drives the shear forces at the small sections of the columns and beams.
or 2) To plan the seismic design of today drives the shear forces at the small sections of the columns and beams, plus...The Clamped column with the ground, transfer lateral load of inertia at the vertical axis of the column, as shear force?
Also ... prestressed construction ...
a) reduces the eigenfrequency construction / soil
b) Increases active behaviour of columns
c) Increases resistance to shear
e) improves the oblique tension

seismic Dec 13, 2013 7:52 AM

All seismic systems that exist today have the idea of the horizontal seismic isolation.
The seismic system I propose is very different from other seismic systems.
a) It is the first sentence Awards I suggesting the clamped structure to the ground.
b) It is the first time worldwide that I suggest applying a reaction at the highest point of the roof, to stop the deformation of construction.
c) It is the first time worldwide that I suggest a system able to deflection earthquake loadings, to stronger cross-section able to receive the shear stress.
If you know a static model which will be able to stand on this seismic base.....
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6og4VWFcGA
please tell me to do the experiment

seismic Dec 15, 2013 9:38 AM

THE ULTIMATE CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM FOR EARTHQUAKE
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZcHBKRI

The earthquakes in recent years around the world have put in first priority the major social and economic issue of the seismic behavior and overall seismic protection of structures against earthquakes .
Various methods have been developed to optimize the response of structures to seismic action
An important part of developments for seismic strengthening of buildings, does not agree with modern architectural needs , which require as much as possible free plans ( unbalanced construction) and reduction of structural elements of the building .
Also , the architectural needs differentiate the surface coverage of the building on each floor
. The problems arising from the application of these architectures claims is to create
* ultimate limit state at soft storey,

1. ) a change in the symmetry of the columns ,

1. ) stronger strain construction , because it creates a concentration effect of action on columns

* asymmetric structures is observed the torsional effect on floors .

Today
a) We plan ductile structures, but we also need the torsional stiffness to stop the torsion of asymmetric floors.
b) Design methods yield (or else plastic zones) which are default locations of failure to be the first ultimate-yield in a powerful earthquake.
This seismic design planning today is very useful but insufficient current architectural needs.
In my quest to design the ultimate seismic system, I built a mechanism and design a method with high earthquake resistance because it improves the indicators of
1. ) the ductile

1. ) Of the plastic zones

* The torsional stiffness of asymmetric structures ;

1. ) Improves resistance of the column relative to the shear force

* Increases active behaviour of columns

1. ) Improves awry tension

* Reduces vibration and deformability of the construction

* reduces resonant vibration

* It helps avoid the concentration effect of action at soft storey,

* In the pretension there is no problem of insufficient impertinence of concrete and steel .

* Ensures stronger foundation.

* ensures damping decrement of seismic loads , which leads to reduced resonant response

* The invention automatically improves the traction of steel which is observed in prestressed steel

The invention automatically improves clamped structure with the ground
even when the structure has recurrent vibration.
( Many circles loads)

seismic Dec 16, 2013 1:13 PM

THE ULTIMATE CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM FOR EARTHQUAKE
The earthquakes in recent years around the world have put in first priority the major social and economic issue of the seismic behavior and overall seismic protection of structures against earthquakes .
Various methods have been developed to optimize the response of structures to seismic action
An important part of developments for seismic strengthening of buildings, does not agree with modern architectural needs , which require as much as possible free plans ( unbalanced construction) and reduction of structural elements of the building .
Also , the architectural needs differentiate the surface coverage of the building on each floor
. The problems arising from the application of these architectures claims is to create
1) ultimate limit state at soft storey,
2 ) a change in the symmetry of the columns ,
3 ) stronger strain construction , because it creates a concentration effect of action on columns
4) asymmetric structures is observed the torsional effect on floors .
Today
a) We plan ductile structures, but we also need the torsional stiffness to stop the torsion of asymmetric floors.
b) Design methods yield (or else plastic zones) which are default locations of failure to be the first ultimate-yield in a powerful earthquake.
This seismic design planning today is very useful but insufficient current architectural needs.
In my quest to design the ultimate seismic system, I built a mechanism and design a method with high earthquake resistance because it improves the indicators of
1 ) the ductile
How we can improve the ductility of columns of ductile structural system
Reply . Separating the ductile structural system of the rigid structural system,
by placing them between seismic joint, partition isometric seismic loads on the vertical elements of the two structural systems.
What will happen if we do not distinguish these two structural systems ;
When the earthquake started , the ductile columns bend because they have great elasticity .
Large rigid columns, do not bend because they have stiffness.
The result is ... all of the earthquake loads to be received from the rigid elements.


2 ) Of the plastic zones.
Question. How to improve the indicators of plastic zones;
Reply . Separating the ductile structural system of the rigid structural system,
by placing them between seismic joint.
The seismic joint works like the plastic zone for the yield load of the earthquake.
(Without Fail)
3) The torsional stiffness of asymmetric structures ;
Question. How to improve the indicators of torsional stiffness of asymmetric structures;
Reply. By placing more than one rigid structural systems (with the interposition of a seismic joint between at selected points) inside the asymmetric ductile static system
Even the pretension creates anyway stiffness.
4 ) Improves resistance of the column relative to the shear force

5) Increases active behaviour of columns
6 ) Improves awry tension
Question.
4) How do I improve the strength of the column relative to the shear force and shear force base;
5) How do I increase the active behaviour of columns;
6) How to Improve the oblique tension?
Reply . We know from the bibliography that pretension itself is very positive, because it improves the trajectories of oblique tension
On the other hand we have another good ... reduced cracking because we apply compression stress which increases the active behaviour of columns;, as well as increases the stiffness of the structure , which reduces the deflection causing failure.

7) Glider displacement node of higher level, and the deflection of the rigid structure
Question.
How glider displacement node of higher level, and the deflection of the rigid structure?
Reply. Introducing a new vertical resistance to the roof (stops the roof to get up) coming from the ground, through the mechanism of the invention.
Even the pretension creates anyway stiffness, and the deflection of the rigid structure.

8) lower the natural frequency of the soil and construction;
Question. How do we lower the natural frequency of the soil and construction;
Reply. Because the compression stress in the cross section of the columns, lowers the natural frequency
And because Introducing a new vertical resistance to the roof, it stop the natural frequency, because seismic damping applied to the width of the wave of the earthquake.


9) It helps avoid the concentration effect of action at soft storey,
10) In the pretension there is no problem of relevance ( consistency ) of concrete and steel .
Question.
9) How it helps to avoid concentration load intensity in soft floor;
10) How eliminates the problem of relevance of concrete and steel;
Reply. In a prestressed well, there are is not baffles and this gives the opportunity to work as a body to control the curve of the ductile system and keeps control over the vertical axis before break.
In prestressing there is no problem with the relevance as present in the inert reinforcing concrete because the clamped structure clamped at both ends of the mechanism of the invention, out of the concrete.
The deflection on the vertical axis of the ductile system
due to the difference spectrum of multiple plates, which tend to give the vertical axis in the form of S
If we take a candle and break it with your hands in the center will observe that
the candle breaks, but the wick stays in the candle.

But if you break the candle at its ends, will not do the same.
The interface of the two materials is less at the edges,
whereby smaller and the reaction
than is the reaction of the other party.
The result is the wick of the candle at the ends to lose its relevance and be pulled out of the candle
The same phenomenon is observed in the columns of the ground floor.
We always see when the columns fail, the steel pulled out of the concrete, shaped curve, but never cut.
The pretension applied the mechanism of the invention does not exhibit said the problem of relevance, simply because there is no link between concrete and tendon, because it passes freely through the concrete.
The tendon anchors applied to both ends of the mechanism out of the concrete.

11) Ensures stronger foundation.
Question. How did the invention provides a stronger foundation;
Reply. The clamping mechanism of the invention stops the building to go up and down. as does the screw with hanger bolts.
12) The invention automatically improves the traction of steel which is observed in prestressed steel
Reply.
The hydraulic system automatically improves - pulling steel - observer in pretension.
The hydraulic system automatically improves anchorage of the anchor to the ground and maintains the structure anchored to the ground,
even in many circles loads
13) ensures damping decrement of seismic loads , which leads to reduced resonant response
Reply.
The forces that cause energy called damping forces and always oppose the motion of the system running oscillation.
The design method that I follow dampening
1) horizontally at the base
2) at the level of (bulkheads) plates and the shaft. (Seismic joint)
3) on the roof, mounted the hydraulic system.
And all this without eliminating the ductility of the bearing, which in itself and is a damping seismic energy.


These two structural systems can work together, or we can only use the rigid component alone to build rigid structures

seismic Feb 5, 2014 3:07 PM

New experiments.
no Comments
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoM5pEy7n9Q

seismic Feb 8, 2014 8:10 PM

Can you explain to me please what an engineer should do to throw it down?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoM5pEy7n9Q # t = 0
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6og4VWFcGA
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ux8TzWYvuQ0

seismic Feb 12, 2014 9:49 AM

Equilibrium equations is the great need of building
The loadings (external or static) will always exist.
We can not eliminate loads.
But we can drive loads in sections that are stronger than other sections.
Vertical cross sections of the columns are stronger than horizontal cross sections of the columns.
All structures with nodes lead loads in the horizontal cross section of the column.
The roof - soil compaction deflects lateral earthquake loads in vertical sections of pillars. These sections are stronger and withstand more loads.

seismic Feb 15, 2014 8:17 PM

The pretension between ground and roof, lower the natural frequency of the soil and construction.
Why you do not plan to implement vertical prestressing;

In this video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C2Z1zmrJhsc#t=0 NEES trying to build flexible nodes to release seismic energy.
is a better method of NEES
or my method; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZcHBKRI
I can tell NEES ... BUILDING IT BETTER

seismic Feb 17, 2014 9:47 AM

What is new .... Example
* If you have a sheet of paper placed on a table.

If on the two ends of the paper, stick two upright wooden parallelograms.
After ... If I shook the wooden table that parallelograms to oscillate,
will see the horizontal plane of the paper is deformed into an S shape
(Torque to the hub)

If we now do the opposite.
That put the parallelogram horizontally on the table, and stick at both ends, two vertical sheets of paper.
If you shook the table, we see the papers defacing the vertical axis in Figure (S)

In both cases, the angle at nodes stressed by a torque, which causes the weaker section deformed.

Now if,
In the first experiment screwed upright wooden parallelograms, with the table (at both ends) will observe that if you shook the table,
paper will not deform at all nodes.
The latest experiment is the method that I say,
and eliminates the torque at the nodes.
This is an extra equation balance on the balance equations we design today
What is new.
I do not clamped plate with the column to release seismic energy.
I do the following.
I make very small cross-section columns to be more flexible (in ductile carrier.)
It is not right to put small sections with large rigid sections together.
because (No isometric allocation charges)
I distinguish ductile operator of the rigid body for several key reasons.
I design the ductile separate entity to be more ductile than what it is today.
I design the ductile carrier separately to take only vertical loads.
Make the rigid body stiffer with pretension.
I use the rigid body, to receive only the horizontal and oblique loads.
Basically, I give distinct roles in each structural system,
so, one being free of the other
Question .. what is best
embedding .. base - soil
or anchoring roof - ground.
For me it is better or anchoring roof - ground.
The anchorage, roof - ground stops the oscillation.
The anchorage, base - soil, not
This is something new in seismic design.
Example ...If you have a wooden stick, like the ones we make
bows , and keep it from one end of our hand .
If you shook your hand this rod will begin to vibrate .
If now tie a string at both ends of the bar and stretch the string will build an arc .
If wag after the bow , you will notice that it will be stiff .
This I did in construction, and stopped rocking .

Now if this string vertically penetrated the center of the bar ( without pretension of the limbs) would not stop the oscillation of the rod .
What causes this phenomenon ;
Equilibrium equations is the great need of building

seismic Feb 21, 2014 7:49 AM

Static loads are loads.
The vertical prestressing load is also a load
The static loads of a structure, containing inert intensity
Loads of prestressing not contain inert intensity.

This makes the difference in deformation.
If you see the video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RoM5pEy7n9Q towards the end, the beams of seismic base, tend to rise upwards from the torque of the model.



If the buildings are not anchored to the ground at the end become like this
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hcIm_RDR3gs

This torque is destructive for the building (not compacted building) because once the oscillation lift the unilateral model, the loads of the building creates a torque on all nodes, which breaks the columns and beams.
If the model is anchored, loads are balance because it does not lift unilateral, the loads are balanced by the reaction of the seismic base, and we have no torque at the nodes.
Now let's see what is best for the building;
a) The embedding of the building be applied between the base and the ground;
b) The embedding of the building, be applied between the roof and the ground;
c) or is it better instead of embedding the roof and the ground to apply a little pretension between base and roof, and at the same time and an embedding with the same mechanism between base and ground;

a) For me better than nothing, is the embedding of the building to be done between base and ground.
b) Too much better, the anchoring of the building to be done .. between roof and ground.
c) And even better, well, when you apply a little pretension between base and roof,
and at the same time and an embedding with the same mechanism between base and soil.
I'll tell you an example to understand my view.

If you have a wooden stick and shake it back and forth by hand, we will see that the top of the rod will oscillate more than the bottom.
Rod has clamping down on our hands, but the oscillation does not stop. Oscillation = deformation, deformation = damage or collapse.
Now if the stick is not elastic (short-pillar section) but we had in our hand a thicker wood (large diameter column)
if you swing with your hand then it will be stiff. (And by simply clamping, soil - the base.)...
If now, with this rod, build an arc, with the help of a string (tying rampant) would observe that as to shake our hand oscillation of the rod will be the same at its top, and its base.
That zero deflection of the vertical axis of the rod, when zero deformations and faults in construction.
For the third case now.
If you have a stick and put it horizontally on two bricks that wood be supported at its ends.
If we give the wood one punch (karate) will hurt a little, but eventually the wood will break in two.
If you now push the wood with a big vise, at its ends, and give a punch .... the wood will break your hand
So does the pretension on the pillars or walls ... powerful sections with respect to the cutting.

seismic Feb 24, 2014 9:07 AM

Giannhs Lymperis
Giannhs Lymperis
Owner, Building contractor

Equilibrium equations is the greatest need of construction in terms of earthquake loadings .
The loadings , external and static there will always be
We can not stop or earthquake loadings and air or static loads .
But we can change direction , and lead them where we want them ,
in order to balance it charges , which balance can only be achieved with voltages (equal or bigger charges ) which would preclude these loadings .
These opposing tendencies balance to the side of the earthquake loads , apply the vertical load-bearing elements .
The vertical elements have two sections .
The horizontal section and the vertical .
The horizontal cross section of vertical structural elements , is much weaker than that is the vertical cross section of vertical structural elements .
So it is logical that if we want a strong cross-section which will oppose the lateral earthquake loads to balance them , this is the vertical cross section of the bearing elements .
In this vertical section should lead the earthquake lateral loads to balance .
With the current design , these trends apply balance of small sections of vertical and horizontal structural elements , which sections are unable to pit balance trends in lateral acceleration loads a large earthquake.
The result is the failure of these sections .
The roof anchorage ground ( all bearing vertical elements ) deflects lateral earthquake loads and directs the vertical profiles of vertical structural elements , which are more powerful than the horizontal , and have the ability to pit trends and more equal balance of these lateral earthquake loads .
The result is to achieve the desired balance equation .
This is NEW in seismic design , and is the solution to the devastating effects brought about by earthquakes in the construction works .
This is a trend on extra balance , because it eliminates the tendencies balance of small sections, but only adds more responsive .
Failure to restrain all bearing vertical elements with the ground , it creates a chain reaction , putting and static loads of construction to cooperate with loads of earthquake , increasing the destructive work.
This is because the non- clamping of the bearing soil roof of each component is changed from a few degrees on the vertical axis , the existing ratio oscillation of the building.
Because bearing vertical elements is combined with horizontal node , the movement of hand, do not affect the resulting columns to try to go over the post - below .
This movement of the anode beam is in contrast to the static loads of the building which are always vertical direction.
This contrast of loads has resulted in creating moments that are mutated in shear , and is an additional strain on small sections, which complements the earthquake lateral loads , which result in cutting these small sections .
This additional stress loads of the building , stopping when she stops and vertical deformation of the load bearing vertical elements . ( Oscillation )
This can only be achieved by clamping or pretension roof soil .
And this is another NEW in seismic design offers patent .
And many more ....


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